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Published on August 21, 2017

Author: VIJAYKUMARKAMIDI

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: Monitoring of green house gases and their influence on global warming and climate change Prepared by Kamidi Vijay Kumar Reg : Ph.D. 2016/17. Slide 2: Greenhouse gas monitoring is the direct measurement of greenhouse gas emissions and levels. Methods include  1. Satellite monitoring    Orbiting Carbon Observatory  . 2. Networks of ground stations     Integrated Carbon Observation System . The individual units of ground stations often use an infrared detector to assess the concentration of a certain gas. Greenhouse gases monitoring Slide 3: Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as  environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc . Most Earth observation satellites carry instruments that should be operated at a relatively low altitude. Altitudes below 500-600 kilometers are in general avoided, though, because of the significant air-drag at such low altitudes making frequent orbit  reboost   maneuvres necessary. Satellite monitoring Slide 4: The Earth observation satellites  ERS-1, ERS-2 and  Envisat   of European Space Agency as well as the  MetOp  spacecraft of EUMETSAT are all operated at altitudes of about 800 km. The  Proba-1, Proba-2 and SMOS  spacecraft of European Space Agency are observing the Earth from an altitude of about 700 km. The Earth observation satellites of UAE,  DubaiSat-1 & DubaiSat-2  are also placed in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) orbits and providing satellite imagery of various parts of the Earth. Slide 5: Six Earth observation satellites comprising the  A-train  satellite Slide 6: A weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.  These meteorological satellites, however, see more than clouds and cloud systems. City lights, fires, effects of pollution, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, energy flows, etc., are other types of environmental information collected using weather satellites. Weather satellite Weather satellite images helped in monitoring the volcanic ash cloud from Mount St. Helens and activity from other volcanoes such as Mount Etna. Smoke from fires Slide 7: GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. Slide 8: MAVEN at Mars . MAVEN is in development for launch in 2013 and will be the first mission devoted to understanding the Mars upper atmosphere.  Slide 9: Orbiting Carbon Observatory The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA satellite mission intended to provide global space-based observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The original spacecraft was lost in a launch failure on 24 February 2009, when the payload fairing of the Taurus rocket which was carrying it failed to separate during ascent.   The replacement satellite, Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2, was launched 2 July 2014 aboard a Delta II rocket. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, a stand-alone payload built from the spare OCO-2 flight instrument, will be installed on the International Space Station's  Kibō Exposed Facility in December 2016. Slide 10: Artist rendition of the OCO satellite as it would look in orbit Slide 11: Mission description OCO's measurements are designed to be accurate enough to show for the first time the geographic distribution of carbon dioxide sources and sinks on a regional scale.  The data is planned to improve the understanding of the global carbon cycle , the natural processes and human activities that influence the abundance and distribution of the greenhouse gas. This improved understanding is expected to enable more reliable forecasts of future changes in the abundance and distribution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the effect that these changes may have on Earth's climate. Slide 12: Technology The satellite will carry a single instrument designed to take the most precise measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide ever made from space. The instrument consists of three parallel, high-resolution spectrometers , integrated into a common structure and fed by a common telescope. The spectrometers will make simultaneous measurements of the carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen absorption of sunlight reflected off the same location on Earth's surface when viewed in the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, invisible to the human eye. Slide 13: Integrated Carbon Observation System Integrated Carbon Observation System  (ICOS) is a new strategic research infrastructure to quantify the greenhouse gas balance in Europe and adjacent regions. It consists of a harmonized network of ecosystem long-term observation sites, a network of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration sites and a network of ocean observations. The network will be coordinated through a set of central facilities, including an atmospheric and an ecosystem thematic center, a central data center, an analytical laboratory and an oceanic thematic center. Slide 14: ICOS will provide the essential long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behavior of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. It will monitor and assess the effectiveness of carbon sequestration and/or greenhouse gases emission reduction activities on global atmospheric composition levels, including attribution of sources and sinks by region and sector. Slide 15: Mission and goals ICOS aims to build a network of standardized, long-term, high precision integrated monitoring of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The infrastructure will integrate terrestrial and atmospheric observations at various sites into a single, coherent, highly precise dataset. These data will allow a unique regional top-down assessment of fluxes from atmospheric data, and a bottom-up assessment from ecosystem measurements and fossil fuel inventories. The terrestrial surface and the ocean. ICOS contributes to the implementation of the Integrated Global Carbon Observation System  Slide 16: Abstract Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a powerful technique to measure trace gas, which can provide high sensitivity, high selectivity, and fast time response. A brief description of our instruments with room-temperature near infrared tunable diode laser designed to measure greenhouse gas (i.e., CH4, CO2) in the ambient air is presented. A multiple-reflection cell and the second harmonic detection technique are used to lower the detection limit. The instruments have been used to monitor the methane and carbon dioxide of the ambient air in a long time in Fengtai , Beijing. The results of measurement are shown and discussed in this paper. Slide 17: The Integrated Global Carbon Observation system (IGCO) being promoted by GEOSS will contribute to the harmonization of space- based observations and in-situ observations, in addition to the harmonization of observation planning, modeling, and predictions. Slide 19: Current Status and Next Steps GOSAT is in full-scale development for its scheduled launch in 2008. Cooperation with OCO for calibration, validation, and data exchange is being coordinated with NASA. Collaboration on data analysis with the US and European science communities is being planned. The global monitoring of greenhouse gases data that will be provided through WDCGG, CDIAC and other organizations include the observation data: Slide 23: GHGs Influence on global warming and climate change Slide 24: Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming The “greenhouse effect” & global warming are not the same thing. Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the surface of the earth An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases leads to an increase in the the magnitude of the greenhouse effect . (Called enhanced greenhouse effect) This results in global warming Slide 25: Selected Greenhouse Gases Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation Anthropogenic increase: 30% Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years Methane (CH 4 ) Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay from landfills, mining Anthropogenic increase: 145% Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers) Anthropogenic increase: 15% Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years Global temperature trend Note that these are surface temperatures and mostly overland. The temperature in upper levels may be different, even reversed.: Global temperature trend Note that these are surface temperatures and mostly overland. The temperature in upper levels may be different, even reversed. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide This chart shows a steady increase of CO 2 concentration in the last five decades. Although this chart is based on Mauna Loa’s data, the same trend has been found in many other places. The degree of warming will not be uniform everywhere higher latitudes are more sensitive : The degree of warming will not be uniform everywhere higher latitudes are more sensitive Source: IPCC If temperature can change, so do other meteorological and environmental variables.: If temperature can change, so do other meteorological and environmental variables. The change in temperature may cause a change in precipitation. Vegetation may also change in response to temperature and precipitation changes. And there will be changes in the animal and human world in response to these environmental changes. Source: NOAA : 1) Global temperatures will rise Global surface temperatures have increased about 0.6°C since the late-19th century, and about 0.2 to 0.3°C over the past 25 years Then we can look at the top 20 hottest ever recorded yearly temperatures. Effects of Global Warming Slide 31: The 20 Hottest Years on Record   2) The Ice is Melting: 2) The Ice is Melting The Ocean waters are already rising due to increases in the earths temperature (warm water expands!) Icebergs don't raise sea levels when they melt because they're floating, which means they have displaced all the water they're ever going to. Ice on land, like Greenland's, is a different matter. Pour that into oceans and you deluge shorelines. Ice is thinning The annual melt season has increased up to three weeks in 20 years. : Ice is thinning The annual melt season has increased up to three weeks in 20 years. Upsala Glacier, Argentina, which was once one of the grandest glaciers to ever exist, continues to shrink on a yearly basis: Upsala Glacier, Argentina, which was once one of the grandest glaciers to ever exist, continues to shrink on a yearly basis 3) Oceans Currents: 3) Oceans Currents Warmer oceans can be mean colder continents within a hotter globe. Larger amounts of fresh water are being added to our oceans. If oceans becomes diluted by freshwater, the salt concentration drops, and the water gets lighter, idling on top and stalling some currents. Ocean currents running between warm and cold regions serve as natural thermoregulators , distributing heat from the equator toward the poles. 4) Drought: 4) Drought An increase in the occurrence of drought – Areas that lack precipitation over a long period of time. As fast as global warming is transforming the oceans and the ice caps, it's having an even more immediate effect on land. . Pacific salmon populations fell sharply in 1997 and 1998, when local ocean temperatures rise 6 degrees F. : Pacific salmon populations fell sharply in 1997 and 1998, when local ocean temperatures rise 6 degrees F. Costa Rica announced that two-thirds of 110 species of colorful harlequin frogs have vanished in the past 30 years : Costa Rica announced that two-thirds of 110 species of colorful harlequin frogs have vanished in the past 30 years 6) Extreme Weather: 6) Extreme Weather As the world warms, some extreme climate events, like the frequency of heat waves and very heavy precipitation, are expected to increase. Blizzards and snow storms may actually increase in intensity and frequency in some colder locations As climate change gathers pace, devastation caused by extreme weather is becoming more common. Many extreme weather events require energy, often in the form of heat. As temperatures increase, extreme weather events will tend to increase in severity. The number of hurricanes that occurred in 2004 was the third-highest number in the 1950-2004 window. The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history Tornadoes are increasing in number and in severity, perhaps an effect of global warming: Tornadoes are increasing in number and in severity, perhaps an effect of global warming Hurricanes are increasing in numbers and in severity, Hurricanes require warm ocean temperatures in order to form.: Hurricanes are increasing in numbers and in severity, Hurricanes require warm ocean temperatures in order to form. Slide 43: What Can be Done: Alternatives Renewable Energy Sources Solar Energies Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Changes In Vehicle Systems Hybrid Fuel Cell Battery-Electric Kyoto Protocol: Kyoto Protocol 1997, Kyoto, Japan  d eveloped countries agreed to specific targets for cutting their emissions of greenhouse gases Industrialized countries committed to an overall reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases to 5.2% below 1990 levels for the period 2008 - 2012 Objective is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE OVER INDIA and Importance of High Resolution Climate Modeling to Impact Assessments: Dr. Vidyunmala Veldore Earth Science and Climate change Division The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE OVER INDIA and Importance of High Resolution Climate Modeling to Impact Assessments Slide 46: A 4-5mm/day of error in Rainfall over Indian land region between IMD and models/reanalysis Slide 47: An error of 8-10 o C in Maximum Temperature between IMD and models/reanalysis. Slide 48: ICOC = INTEGRATED CARBON OBSERVATION SYSTEM. OCO = ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY GOSAT = GREEN HOUSE GASES OBSERVING SATELLITE GEOSS = GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS WDCGG = WORLD DATA CENTRE FOR GREEN HOUSE CDIAC = CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS THANK YOU: THANK YOU

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