pptHighConsequence

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Published on April 3, 2008

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Overview of High Consequence Livestock Pathogens:  Overview of High Consequence Livestock Pathogens For veterinarians USDA High Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins:  USDA High Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins Disease Awareness:  Disease Awareness Veterinarians recognize animal diseases at the local level Prepare by knowing Typical signs of diseases Basic disease etiology Economic and trade impact How to report suspected cases Disseminate knowledge Overview:  Overview Importance of agriculture and livestock to U.S. economy High consequence livestock pathogens CDC’s Category A, B, C Bioterrorism Agent List Additional diseases Veterinarian’s responsibilities Importance of Agriculture & Livestock:  Importance of Agriculture & Livestock U.S. Agriculture:  U.S. Agriculture Exports are our lifeblood 2003, $56.2 billion exported in agricultural commodities $12.2 billion from animal/animal products Some diseases reportable to the OIE Trade could be halted Negative effect on economy, livestock/grain producers, and employment rate U.S. Animal Data, 2003:  U.S. Animal Data, 2003 Some Agents are Zoonotic:  Some Agents are Zoonotic Disease may be seen in animals before humans Animals are sentinels Pets, livestock, wildlife Protect yourself Educate your clients about the risks Biosecurity: Veterinarians:  Biosecurity: Veterinarians Disinfect your clothes, boots, equipment between farms Avoid vehicle contamination Follow biosecurity guidelines set forth by species-specific associations CDC Category ABC Agent Overview:  CDC Category ABC Agent Overview Classification:  Classification Prepared by the CDC’s Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Office Category A: Highest priority Category B: Second highest priority Category C: Third highest priority CDC Category ABC Agents:  CDC Category ABC Agents Category A Anthrax Botulism Tularemia Category C Nipah Category B Brucellosis Glanders Melioidosis Q Fever Viral encephalitis Toxins “Weaponization” of Agents:  “Weaponization” of Agents Alter characteristics of a pathogen to make it a more effective weapon Enhance transmission Increase virulence Resistant to antibiotics Evade vaccine protection Alter clinical signs Note to presenter:  Note to presenter As time allows select diseases you would like to review. The CDC Category A,B,C diseases are listed first, and then you will see the additional High Consequence Livestock Pathogens. The disease coverage is brief. If you would like more information on a disease, refer to the fact sheet or to the disease specific presentation. CDC Category A:  CDC Category A Anthrax Botulism Tularemia Anthrax: The Agent:  Anthrax: The Agent Bacillus anthracis – Gram positive spore-forming bacteria Forms spores Human disease Skin Intestinal Pulmonary Animal disease Septicemia and rapid death Anthrax: The Bioweapon:  Anthrax: The Bioweapon History Available & easily produced Spores infective Aerosolization Low lethal dose High mortality Person-to-person transmission rare Anthrax: The Response:  Anthrax: The Response Vaccine Humans Animals Antibiotics Treatment Prophylaxis Disinfection Sporicidal agents, sterilization Botulism: The Agent:  Botulism: The Agent Clostridium botulinum – Gram positive, spore-forming bacteria 7 different neurotoxins Types A-G Clinical signs Flaccid paralysis Pigs, dogs, and cats fairly resistant Botulism: The Bioweapon:  Botulism: The Bioweapon Used by Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan Aerosolized Easy to produce and transport Potent and lethal Most poisonous substance known Botulism: The Response:  Botulism: The Response Toxoids for high risk people Antitoxin available Case-by-case basis Botulinum toxins are easily inactivated with many disinfectants and heat Tularemia: The Agent:  Tularemia: The Agent Francisella tularensis Transmitted by ingestion, inhalation, vectors, direct contact through skin Six clinical forms in humans Ulceroglandular Glandular Tularemia: The Agent:  Tularemia: The Agent Sheep, young pigs, horses, dogs, cats Sudden fever, lethargy, stiffness, prostration, and death Wildlife Usually find dead Rabbits behave strangely Cattle, older pigs resistant Tularemia: The Bioweapon:  Tularemia: The Bioweapon Stable Aerosolized Low infective dose via inhalation Case fatality: 30-60% (untreated) WHO estimation: 1970 50 kg agent: City population 5 million 250,000 ill 19,000 deaths Tularemia: The Response:  Tularemia: The Response Person-to-person transmission not documented Antibiotics effective, if early or prophylactic Vaccine For high risk individuals Unknown efficacy against inhalational tularemia CDC Category B:  CDC Category B Brucellosis Q Fever Glanders Toxins Melioidosis Viral Encephalitis Brucellosis: The Agent:  Brucellosis: The Agent Gram-negative bacteria Ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact Clinical signs Humans: cyclic fever and flu-like symptoms Animals: reproductive signs Brucellosis: The Agent:  Brucellosis: The Agent Brucellosis: The Bioweapon:  Brucellosis: The Bioweapon History Highly infectious Easily aerosolized Stable Prolonged incubation period May make diagnosis difficult Person-to-person unlikely Brucellosis: The Response:  Brucellosis: The Response Long term antibiotics generally effective Vaccinate calves, no human vaccine Eliminate reservoir Standard precaution to avoid exposure Thorough disinfection Glanders: The Agent:  Glanders: The Agent Burkholderia mallei: Gram-negative Transmission by ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact Animal-to-human transmission is inefficient Clinical signs Humans & horses: cutaneous & pulmonary lesions, rapidly fatal illness Glanders: The Bioweapon:  Glanders: The Bioweapon History WWI Russian horses WWII Chinese civilians, horses, POW’s Easy to produce Aerosolized, highly infectious Mortality high in chronic form 50-70% Person to person transmission: Rare Glanders: The Response:  Glanders: The Response No vaccine Antibiotic therapy likely effective Destroyed by various chemicals Melioidosis: The Agent:  Melioidosis: The Agent Burkholderia pseudomallei: Gram-negative Transmission: Contact, ingestion, inhalation Clinical signs: Humans, sheep, goats, and pigs Asymptomatic to pneumonia, lung and wound abscesses Melioidosis: The Bioweapon :  Melioidosis: The Bioweapon Easy to produce Available Aerosolization High mortality: 90% Person-to-person (rare) Animal-to-person (rare) Melioidosis: The Response:  Melioidosis: The Response Long-term, multiple antibiotics effective Vaccines available: not in U.S. Easily destroyed by disinfectants Toxins: The Agents:  Toxins: The Agents Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) Ricin toxin from castor plant Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin SEB: The Agent:  SEB: The Agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) A common cause of food poisoning Clinical signs: Humans Fever, chills, headache, myalgia Non-productive cough if inhaled GI signs if swallowed Animals: Likely similar to human Ricin: The Agent:  Ricin: The Agent Ricin toxin from bean of castor plant Available worldwide Clinical signs Acute onset of fever, chest tightness, cough, dyspnea, nausea Epsilon Toxin: The Agent:  Epsilon Toxin: The Agent Clostridium perfringens type B and D Increases intestinal and vascular permeability, liver and neurological damage Clinical signs Calves: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, listlessness, neurologic Sheep, goats: Watery to bloody diarrhea, neurologic Humans: Little information Toxins: The Bioweapon:  Toxins: The Bioweapon History Aerosolized: SEB, ricin Available worldwide Easy to produce, stable Many species affected No person-to-person transmission Toxins: The Response:  Toxins: The Response Supportive care No vaccines currently available for SEB or ricin Vaccines for animals for clostridial disease Toxins are inactivated with common disinfectants Viral Encephalitis: The Agent:  Viral Encephalitis: The Agent The Alphaviruses: EEE, WEE, and VEE Transmitted via mosquito Clinical signs Humans, horses, donkeys, mules: Often asymptomatic to flu-like Encephalitis in small proportions Birds are asymptomatic carriers, act as sentinels Viral Encephalitis: The Bioweapon:  Viral Encephalitis: The Bioweapon Easy to produce Aerosolization High rate of infection Person-to-person transmission possible Viral Encephalitis: The Response:  Viral Encephalitis: The Response Supportive care Vaccine Equine Human: High risk Virus unstable in environment CDC Category C:  CDC Category C Nipah Nipah Virus: The Agent:  Nipah Virus: The Agent Paramyxovirus Fruit bat reservoir Clinical signs Humans: Encephalitis Pigs: Respiratory, neurological Dogs and cats: “Distemper” Nipah Virus: The Bioweapon:  Nipah Virus: The Bioweapon Aerosolization potential Wide host range No person-to-person transmission expected High morbidity and mortality Nipah Virus: The Response:  Nipah Virus: The Response Avoid contact with all infected animals and fluids Vaccine being researched Call authorities immediately Other Important Diseases:  Other Important Diseases Rift Valley Fever Hendra Virus Rift Valley Fever: The Agent:  Rift Valley Fever: The Agent Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae Transmission: Mosquito, inhalation, contact with infected body fluids Clinical signs Humans: Flu-like, fever, headache Severe disease: Retinitis, hemorrhagic fever Animals: Abortions, death in neonates Rift Valley Fever: The Bioweapon:  Rift Valley Fever: The Bioweapon WHO estimate: 1970 50 kg of virus aerosolized 35,000 incapacitated 400 deaths (1% mortality) Stable at most temperatures Inactivated by various chemicals Rift Valley Fever: The Response:  Rift Valley Fever: The Response Vaccinate ruminants in endemic areas Control mosquitoes Avoid contact with infected tissues & blood Wear protective clothing No person-to-person transmission Hendra Virus: The Agent:  Hendra Virus: The Agent Newly discovered Australia Fruit bats Transmission: Urine, body fluids Humans Flu-like illness, respiratory failure Horses, cats Acute respiratory signs, nasal discharge, fever, encephalitis, sudden death Hendra Virus: The Response:  Hendra Virus: The Response Little is known about disease Highest level of security to work with the agent Potentially serious consequences High mortality rate Lack of treatment Additional High Consequence Livestock Pathogens:  Additional High Consequence Livestock Pathogens Additional High Consequence Livestock Pathogens:  Additional High Consequence Livestock Pathogens African horse sickness African swine fever Akabane Avian influenza (HP) Bluetongue BSE Classical swine fever Coccidioidomycosis Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia Foot and mouth disease Heartwater Japanese encephalitis Lumpy skin disease Malignant catarrhal fever Menangle Newcastle disease Peste des petit ruminants Rinderpest Screwworm myiasis Sheep/goat pox Swine vesicular disease Vesicular stomatitis World Organisation for Animal Health:  World Organisation for Animal Health Early Warning System Disease reported within 24 hours Informs countries at risk Trade shut down until further notice African Horse Sickness:  African Horse Sickness Viral infection Horses, mules, donkeys Lethal disease Arthropod-borne Culicoides sp. (biting midges) Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa Peak: Late summer - early autumn Prevalence influenced by climate AHS: The Disease:  AHS: The Disease Incubation period: 2-14 days Clinical signs typically seen in 5-7 days Four forms of the disease Pulmonary Mortality 100% Cardiac Mortality 50-70% Mixed-pulmonary and cardiac Horsesickness fever Rarely fatal AHS: Impact & Response:  AHS: Impact & Response 1989: Portugal outbreak Eradication cost $1.9 million U.S. Horse Industry Inventory: 5.25 million horses Value of sales: $1.75 billion Vaccine available in endemic areas No natural human infection Vector control imperative to disease control African Swine Fever:  African Swine Fever Viral infection Swine Febrile, contagious, systemic disease Garbage feeding Infected pork-scraps Tick-borne Ornithodoros sp. (soft ticks) Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa ASF: The Disease:  ASF: The Disease Incubation period: 48-72 hours Chronic infection Low fever, multi-focal erythema (raised and necrotic), pneumonia, painless swelling of joints High virulence (100% mortality) High fever, recumbency, erythema, anorexia, death Low virulence (seroconversion) ASF: Impact and Response:  ASF: Impact and Response Morbidity approaches 100% Mortality varies with virulence (0-100%) Import/export ban of hogs Isolation and slaughter required for eradication Huge economic impact No treatment or vaccine Humans not susceptible to disease Akabane:  Akabane Viral infection Cattle, sheep, goats Reproductive disorders Asymptomatic dams Mosquitoes, biting midges Tropics and subtropics Australia, Japan, Israel, Korea Incidence related to climate, season Akabane: The Disease:  Akabane: The Disease Viremia: 1-6 days post-infection Adults asymptomatic Pregnant ruminants Abortion and stillbirths Dystocia Congenital abnormalities Varies with stage of gestation Akabane: Impact and Response:  Akabane: Impact and Response 2002 U.S. livestock statistics Calves: 38.2 million head Lambs: 4.36 million head U.S. livestock naïve No effective treatment No natural human infection Potential vectors found in U.S. Control vector to control disease Vaccine used in Japan Avian Influenza, Highly Pathogenic:  Avian Influenza, Highly Pathogenic Type A virus Domestic and wild birds Humans Reservoir: Migratory water fowl Aerosols, contaminated drinking water Infected flock- source of virus for life Worldwide distribution HPAI: The Disease:  HPAI: The Disease Incubation period: 3-14 days Birds Sudden death Egg production drops Neurological signs Humans Conjunctivitis and respiratory signs Death possible HPAI: Impact and Response:  HPAI: Impact and Response Direct losses Depopulation and disposal High morbidity and mortality Quarantine and surveillance Indemnities 2003: European outbreak (H7N7) 30 million birds destroyed Estimated at $338 million USD 2004: Asian outbreak (H5N1) HPAI: Impact and Response:  HPAI: Impact and Response Treatment Poultry- none Humans- antivirals Control outbreak through depopulation/disinfection Prompt response to MP AI outbreak Vaccine Poultry: Expensive, no cross protection Human: No cross protection Bluetongue:  Bluetongue Viral disease Ruminants: Primarily sheep 24 serotypes worldwide 5 isolated in the U.S. Vector-borne Culicoides (biting midge) Worldwide distribution Mediterranean outbreak, 1997-2002 Bluetongue: The Disease:  Bluetongue: The Disease Incubation period: 5-20 days Sheep Salivation, facial swelling, nasal discharge Cyanotic (blue) tongue Reproductive disorders Cattle, goats Subclinical; possible mild hyperemia Wildlife Hemorrhages, sudden death Bluetongue: Impact and Response:  Bluetongue: Impact and Response Affects cattle industry $125 million per year in lost trade and animal testing No treatment; supportive care Vector control Vaccine available Serotype specific, adverse effects Humans: Low risk of infection Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy:  Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions Cattle and humans Progressively fatal neurologic disease Transmission Consumption of scrapie-infected feed Spontaneous mutation Worldwide distribution BSE: The Disease:  BSE: The Disease Cattle (BSE) Incubation period: 2-8 yrs Initial signs subtle Final stages Excitable, hypermetria, ataxic, tremors, loss of condition, death Humans (vCJD) Incubation unknown Neurological signs progressing to death 28 years old (mean age at death) BSE: Impact and Response:  BSE: Impact and Response United Kingdom £3.7 billion by end of 2001/02 financial year No effective treatment or vaccine Surveillance program Restrictions in place Import, animal feeds, slaughter, mammalian products Very resistant Classical Swine Fever:  Classical Swine Fever Viral infection Pigs and wild boars Highly contagious reservoir Transmission Oral (contaminated garbage), direct contact, aerosol, vertical, insects, fomites Worldwide distribution CSF: The Disease:  CSF: The Disease Incubation period: 2-14 days Variable clinical signs Acute to asymptomatic Fever, weakness, anorexia, purplish discoloration of ears/thighs Chronic infection fatal Strain of virus Susceptibility of pigs Indistinguishable from ASF CSF: Impact and Response:  CSF: Impact and Response Mortality approaches 100% in acute/chronic infections Ban on import/export of pigs/products Huge economic impact No treatment Control through quarantine, slaughter Vaccine in endemic countries Humans not susceptible to disease Coccidioidomycosis:  Coccidioidomycosis Dimorphic fungus Saprophytic and parasitic phase Dogs, cats, horses, humans From soil or dust Arthroconidia become airborne, inhaled Endemic in southwest U.S., northern Mexico, Argentina Coccidioidomycosis: The Disease:  Coccidioidomycosis: The Disease Incubation period: 1-3 weeks Disease varies in severity and species affected Asymptomatic to disseminated Primary form Fever, lethargy, dry/harsh cough Disseminate form Lameness, joint swelling, abscesses and draining skin lesions Coccidioidomycosis: Impact and Response:  Coccidioidomycosis: Impact and Response Infection is costly 1990: Kern County, CA Cost more than $66 million Can be widespread in livestock Not communicable or zoonotic Anti-fungal treatment No vaccine Prevent exposure to dust in endemic areas Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP):  Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) Bacteria Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small colony type Bovine and zebu Transmission via close contact (inhalation); transplacental Endemic in Africa Eradicated in Western Hemisphere CBPP: The Disease:  CBPP: The Disease Incubation period: 20-123 days Respiratory signs Cough, broad stance Chronic infections Depressed, thin, polyarthritis 25% Subclinical carriers Morbidity ~100% Mortality 10-70% CBPP: Impact and Response:  CBPP: Impact and Response High economic, social impact Zambia, Tanzania, Botswana Drought leading to spread of disease Treatment not always effective Organism sequestered Vaccine available in endemic areas Not always economically feasible Humans not susceptible Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP):  Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) Bacteria Mycoplasma capricolum Mycoplasma mycoides capri Goats Transmission by direct contact inhalation Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Soviet Union, Far East CCPP: The Disease:  CCPP: The Disease Incubation period: 6-28 days Mycoplasma F38 strain Respiratory symptoms Coughing, labored respiration, nasal discharge, Chronic cases: Carriers M. mycoides capri Septicemia, reproductive, GI, respiratory symptoms Morbidity 100%; Mortality 60-100% CCPP: Impact and Response:  CCPP: Impact and Response Africa and Asia Goats essential to economics Meat, milk, hides Treatment with antibiotics possible early Newly infected countries: Slaughter recommended Vaccine available in some countries Humans not susceptible Foot and Mouth Disease: FMD:  Foot and Mouth Disease: FMD Viral infection Highly contagious Cloven-hooved animals Not horses Transmission: Direct contact, aerosol, fomites Worldwide distribution Eradicated from U.S. in 1929 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Distribution and Recent Activity:  Present Recent Activity Free (Rev. 3-25-01) Foot-and-Mouth Disease Distribution and Recent Activity FMD: The Disease:  FMD: The Disease Incubation period: 2-12 days Cattle Indicator host Fever, vesicles, salivation, lameness Sheep and goats Maintenance hosts Mild clinical signs Pigs: Amplifying host Lameness predominant sign FMD: Impact and Response:  FMD: Impact and Response 2001, U.K. Outbreak Total costs over $18 billion USD 6 million animals slaughtered FMD free in less than 1 year Public perception Animal welfare Smoke pollution FMD: Impact and Response:  FMD: Impact and Response Most important livestock disease in the world USDA upgrading safeguarding measures Quarantine, depopulation, disinfection Vaccination – complex decision Extremely rare, mild symptoms in people Heartwater:  Heartwater Rickettsial bacterium Cattle, sheep, goats, and water buffalo Severe disease Arthropod-borne Amblyomma sp. Endemic in Africa and Caribbean islands Heartwater: The Disease:  Heartwater: The Disease Incubation period: 14-18 days Four forms of the disease Peracute (rare) Sudden death Acute (most common) High fever, respiratory distress, nervous signs Subacute (rare) Prolonged fever and pulmonary edema Mild or subclinical Transient fever Heartwater: Impact and Response:  Heartwater: Impact and Response Zimbabwe national losses $56 million Potential outbreak in U.S. Estimated 40–100% mortality Treat with tetracycline Vaccine is available Vector control Japanese Encephalitis:  Japanese Encephalitis Viral infection Humans, pigs, and other domestic species Arthropod-borne Culex sp. Endemic in temperate and tropical Asia JE: The Disease:  JE: The Disease Incubation period: 6-10 days Horses Fever and neurologic signs Swine Stillbirths Humans Fever, headache Fatal encephalitis possible JE: Impact and Response:  JE: Impact and Response High financial loss in pigs No effective treatment Supportive care Vector control measures Vaccine Horses and swine Humans Lumpy Skin Disease:  Lumpy Skin Disease Viral infection Cattle Arthropod vector Mosquitoes and biting flies Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa Peak: Rainy season Lumpy Skin Disease: The Disease:  Lumpy Skin Disease: The Disease Incubation period: 2-5 weeks Fever, abortions, decreased milk production Nodules typically appear 10 days later Mortality rates vary 2-85% Lumpy Skin Disease: Impact and Response:  Lumpy Skin Disease: Impact and Response Severe economic losses due to decreased animal production Control secondary infections Attenuated LSD vaccine South Africa Sheep and goat pox vaccine Kenya, Egypt Malignant Catarrhal Fever:  Malignant Catarrhal Fever Viral infection Wildebeest- Africa Sheep/goats- N. America Susceptible species: Cattle, bison, other wild ruminants Dead-end hosts Aerosol or mechanical transmission MCF: The Disease:  MCF: The Disease Incubation period: 9-77 days Four clinical forms Acute Sudden death Head and eye Fever, necrotic lesions Intestinal Severe diarrhea Mild MCF: Impact and Response:  MCF: Impact and Response High economic losses in exotics Mortality near 100% in clinically ill animals No effective treatment Supportive therapy No current vaccine Human disease not documented Menangle virus:  Menangle virus Viral infection Recently discovered Swine reproductive disease Humans infected Not highly contagious Fruit bat reservoir Fecal-oral or urinary-oral Single outbreak New South Wales, Australia Menangle: The Disease:  Menangle: The Disease Incubation period: Unknown Pigs seroconvert in 10-14 days Disease in developing fetuses Mummification Stillbirth Deformities Decreased farrowing rate No signs in postnatal pigs Menangle: Impact and Response:  Menangle: Impact and Response Great economic impact in naïve swine populations 1977 outbreak Farrowing rate decreased 44% Decreased litter size Strong immunity after infection No vaccine Humans Malaise, fever, chills Full recovery Exotic Newcastle Disease (END):  Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) Virus affecting poultry Four pathotypes Migratory birds Secondary human spread Feral pigeons Psittacines shed virus for >1 year vND endemic in Asia, Middle East, Africa, Central/ South America END: The Disease:  END: The Disease Incubation period: 2-15 days Drop in egg production, neurological damage, GI signs, respiratory distress Numerous deaths within 24-48 hours Deaths continue for 7-10 days Morbidity 100%, mortality 90% END: Impact and Response:  END: Impact and Response Most costly poultry disease worldwide 2002-2003: California outbreak $160 million impact Developing countries Affects quality and quantity of dietary protein Vaccine available Human’s can acquire eye infections from contact with virus Peste des Petits Ruminants:  Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral infection Goats and sheep Close contact Aerosol, fomites? Morbidity and mortality up to 100% Africa, the Middle East, India Peste des Petits Ruminants: The Disease:  Peste des Petits Ruminants: The Disease Incubation period: 3-10 days Sudden onset Fever, erosive stomatitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia More severe in young Abortions Diarrhea, dehydration and death Prognosis correlated with extent of mouth lesions Peste des Petits Ruminants: Impact and Response:  Peste des Petits Ruminants: Impact and Response Ecomonic losses Loss of production, death, abortion Limit trade, export Constraints on availability of protein for human consumption No specific treatment Rinderpest vaccine Protects for 12 months Hinders rinderpest campaign in Africa Rinderpest:  Rinderpest Viral infection Highly contagious Cattle, domestic buffalo Other ungulates can carry disease Direct or close contact Also contaminated food, water, fomites East Africa, possibly Asia Rinderpest: The Disease:  Rinderpest: The Disease Incubation period 3-15 days Four forms Classical: Fever, diarrhea, nasal/ocular discharge, oral erosions Peracute: Young animals, rapidly fatal Subacute: Mild signs, low mortality Atypical: Irregular fever, mild diarrhea Rinderpest: Impact and Response:  Rinderpest: Impact and Response Africa: 1982-84 outbreak cost $500 million $100 million spent annually on vaccination world-wide Diagnosis usually means slaughter Vaccine offers life-long immunity Humans not susceptible to disease Screwworm Myiasis:  Screwworm Myiasis Larvae of the Family Calliphoridae All warm-blooded animals Humans and animals infected when female fly deposits eggs into wound Morbidity variable, can reach 100% Tropical regions Screwworm Myiasis: The Disease:  Screwworm Myiasis: The Disease Larvae Emerge in 8-12 hours Visible within 3 days Wounds Bloody discharge Foul odor Secondary infection Depression, off feed, rubbing Signs similar in humans Screwworm Myiasis: Impact and Response:  Screwworm Myiasis: Impact and Response Estimated losses if reintroduced $540 million annually $1.27 billion for eradication Treatment Removal of larvae Topical larvicide 2-3 days Sterile fly technique U.S. free in 1966 Mexico free in 1991 Sheep and Goat Pox:  Sheep and Goat Pox Viral infection Capripoxvirus Contagious Most important pox disease of domestic animals Direct contact Inhalation, insects? Parts of Africa, Asia, India, and the Middle East Sheep and Goat Pox: The Disease:  Sheep and Goat Pox: The Disease Incubation period: 4-13 days Clinical signs include Fever, conjunctivitis, dyspnea Skin lesions take up to 6 weeks to heal Mortality 50% in susceptible flock 100% in young No chronic carriers Sheep and Goat Pox: Impact and Response:  Sheep and Goat Pox: Impact and Response Infection can limit trade of live animals and product Treat secondary infections Vaccination Endemic areas with attenuated virus Slaughter should be considered Humans not susceptible Swine Vesicular Disease:  Swine Vesicular Disease Viral infection Resistant to heat, pH, curing Moderately contagious Swine and humans Ingestion or close contact Previously Europe and Hong Kong Only in Italy as of 2002 SVD: The Disease:  SVD: The Disease Incubation period: Ingestion: 2-5 days Direct contact: 2-7 days Clinically resembles FMD Fever, salivation, lameness Vesicles Snout, mammary gland, coronary band Mortality low SVD: Impact and Response:  SVD: Impact and Response Control measures costly Export restrictions Supportive care Vaccine not commercially available Human infection not common Incubation period: 1-5 weeks Mild influenza-like symptoms Vesicular lesions not seen Vesicular Stomatitis :  Vesicular Stomatitis Viral infection Horses, donkeys, cattle, swine, South American camelids Arthropod-borne, direct contact, aerosol Morbidity 90%, mortality low Southwest United States VSV: The Disease:  VSV: The Disease Animals Incubation period 3-5 days Oral/mammary/coronary band lesions, salivation, lameness Resembles FMD Recovery in 2 weeks Humans Incubation period 1-6 days Influenza-like symptoms, rarely oral vesicles Self limiting VSV: Impact and Response:  VSV: Impact and Response Outbreaks every 10 years in the U.S 1982 and 1995: $53-$202 per head lost on cattle 1998: Equine outbreak Supportive treatment Vaccines available during an outbreak The Veterinarian’s Responsibility:  The Veterinarian’s Responsibility The Veterinarian’s Responsibility:  The Veterinarian’s Responsibility Guardian of animal and public health Sharpen awareness of disease agents Alert officials early Be involved with emergency response plans at all levels You are the expert Provide leadership and input to clients and community Contacts:  Contacts Phone numbers to know State Veterinarian State Public Health Veterinarian APHIS- Area Veterinarian in Charge Public Health Officials Conclusion:  Conclusion Summary:  Summary Importance of agriculture and livestock Specific disease agents on high consequence livestock pathogen list Zoonotic potential Veterinarian’s responsibilities Awareness education imperative Conclusion:  Conclusion “The best prescription, is knowledge.” Dr. C. Everett Koop Former U.S. Surgeon General Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University. Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Author: Co-author: Reviewer: Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH Katie Steneroden, DVM, MPH Stacy Holzbauer, DVM James Roth, DVM, PhD Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH

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