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Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Mahugani

Source: authorstream.com

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Lecture 43:  Lecture 43 The Nobel Prize, as founded in Alfred Nobel's will, was the first truly international prize.:  The Nobel Prize, as founded in Alfred Nobel's will, was the first truly international prize. The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Jean Henry Dunant, Jean Henry Dunant:  Jean Henry Dunant Dunant (May 8, 1828-October 30, 1910) He came from a rich family and publish his first book about his travels through north Africa and Italy:  He came from a rich family and publish his first book about his travels through north Africa and Italy One chapter of the book he spoke of the inhumanity of slavery which he witnessed and how evil it was both in Europe and America. Slide5:  Later on he was involved in a scheme to make a great deal of money on a land purchase deal. To make it work he needed water rights and went to see “in the field” Napoleon to discuss his case. Napoleon was in battle directing the French and Italian armies, striving to drive the Austrians out of Italy.:  Napoleon was in battle directing the French and Italian armies, striving to drive the Austrians out of Italy. He arrived there in time to witness, and to participate in the aftermath of, one of the bloodiest battles of the nineteenth century. The battle of Solferino Slide7:  40,000 men killed That day 300,000 men in battle He was so moved by what he saw he published in 1862 a small book Un Souvenir de Solférino [A Memory of Solferino],:  He was so moved by what he saw he published in 1862 a small book Un Souvenir de Solférino [A Memory of Solferino], Part 1 what he saw of the battle Part 2 what he saw of the treatment of the wounded Part 3 what should be done for the soldiers He called for an international conference in Geneva that would give guidelines by which to treat wounded Geneva Society for Public Welfare :  He called for an international conference in Geneva that would give guidelines by which to treat wounded Geneva Society for Public Welfare Geneva convention Slide10:  At the convention it was decided that an organization should monitor and help war prisoners and wounded The International Red Cross was born Homework Do the Le Chatelier’s Principle handout and Equilibrium constant Expression handout on the net Read pages 512 - 516:  Homework Do the Le Chatelier’s Principle handout and Equilibrium constant Expression handout on the net Read pages 512 - 516 Check homework answer questions:  Check homework answer questions Quiz 43:  Quiz 43 Gen chem go to Block 4 go to We have talked about the Keq and the ratio of concentration of product to concentration of reactant:  We have talked about the Keq and the ratio of concentration of product to concentration of reactant It is this concentration that pushes the reaction Law of mass action Slide15:  For the system involving N2O4 and NO2 at equilibrium (N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)) at a temperature of 100oC the concentration of N2O4 is 4.0 x10-2M and the concentration of NO2 is 1.2 x 10-1 M. What is the Keq for this reaction Slide16:  Methanol can be prepared by the reaction of H2 and CO at high temperature , according to the following equation, CO(g) + 2H2(g)  CH3OH(g)   What is the concentration of CH3OH(g) if [H2] = 0.08 M and [CO] = .025M and the Keq for the reaction is 290 a) enable you to estimate the concentration of reactants at equilibrium at a particular temperature b) indicate the direction of the reaction c) enable you to estimate the concentration of reactants at equilibrium at a particular temperature:  a) enable you to estimate the concentration of reactants at equilibrium at a particular temperature b) indicate the direction of the reaction c) enable you to estimate the concentration of reactants at equilibrium at a particular temperature Remember that the Kequ gives you a quantitative idea of the There is another kind of Equilibrium that involves the solubility product constant Ksp:  There is another kind of Equilibrium that involves the solubility product constant Ksp When an ionic solid dissociates in water CaF2(s)  Ca2+(aq) + 2F- (aq) The ionic solid will go into solution to slight degree The Ksp for Ca2+ 2F- is 1.6 x 10 -10 which means only a very little of the CaF2(s) becomes dissociated Slide20:  It is the movement of solids out of solutions from ground water that creates stalactites It doesn't matter where the ions came from, they will undergo precipitation (form a solid) according to the Ksp solubility product constant:  It doesn't matter where the ions came from, they will undergo precipitation (form a solid) according to the Ksp solubility product constant The book uses the process where we get magnesium out of sea water as an example of solubility product:  The book uses the process where we get magnesium out of sea water as an example of solubility product If you increase OH- then in order for Ksp to remain the same then the concentration of Mg must fall out of solution Slide23:  Remember that the solubility product is only for salts that have low solubility. Super Soluble salts such as sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate do not have Ksp values. Make sure that the reaction is at equilibrium. Ksp is called the solubility product because it is literally the product of the solubilities of the ions in moles per liter. The solubility product of a salt can therefore be calculated from its solubility, or vice versa.:  Ksp is called the solubility product because it is literally the product of the solubilities of the ions in moles per liter. The solubility product of a salt can therefore be calculated from its solubility, or vice versa. AgBr(s)  Ag+(aq)+ Br -(aq) We then write the solubility product expression for this reaction. Ksp = [Ag+][Br-] = 5.0 x 10-13 But what happens when you stress a system:  But what happens when you stress a system When you hear a loud noise you move away from the stress:  When you hear a loud noise you move away from the stress The Scientist named Le Chatelier studied the change a dynamic equilibrium :  The Scientist named Le Chatelier studied the change a dynamic equilibrium http://www.psigate.ac.uk/newsite/reference/plambeck/chem1/p01101.htm This principle stated by Henri Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936) is: If, to a system at equilibrium, a stress be applied, the system will react so as to relieve the stress:  This principle stated by Henri Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936) is: If, to a system at equilibrium, a stress be applied, the system will react so as to relieve the stress "If you kick its tail hard enough, it moves where you boot it" Slide29:  quano Earlier we mentioned the Haber process   N2 + 3H2  2NH3 :  Earlier we mentioned the Haber process   N2 + 3H2  2NH3 Slide31:  In order to create NH3 what do you need to do? What happens if you have a reaction at equilibrium and you only increase A?:  What happens if you have a reaction at equilibrium and you only increase A? A + B  AB Slide33:  If you do something to disturb a system at equilibrium, the system responds in a way that undoes partially what you have just done. ↑A + B  AB N2 + H2  NH3 :  N2 + H2  NH3 Stress of Adding Reactants. The equilibrium system will react against this, removing reactants by the formation of additional products through chemical reaction. The reaction will proceed to the right. Stress of Removing Products. The equilibrium system will react against this, removing reactants to form products by chemical reaction. The reaction will proceed to the right. Movement to relieve stress what if you increase H2:  Movement to relieve stress what if you increase H2 What happens if you decrease N2 :  What happens if you decrease N2 Shift to the right For the reaction 2SO2 + O2  2SO3 what happens if you increase SO2 Decrease SO2 Increase O2 Increase SO3 :  For the reaction 2SO2 + O2  2SO3 what happens if you increase SO2 Decrease SO2 Increase O2 Increase SO3 2NO2  N2O4 + heat how a out adding heat:  2NO2  N2O4 + heat how a out adding heat Shift to the left Move to reduce the stress And the stress comes in 3 forms, 1) a change in concentration 2) a change in pressure 3) a change in temp:  Move to reduce the stress And the stress comes in 3 forms, 1) a change in concentration 2) a change in pressure 3) a change in temp Stress by pressurizing a system:  Stress by pressurizing a system The effect of an increase in the total pressure is that if the moles of gas present can be decreased by reaction, the decrease will occur and the chemical reaction will take place in the direction of decreasing moles of gas. The effect of a decrease in the total pressure is that if the moles of gas present can be increased by reaction, the increase will occur and the chemical reaction will take place in the direction of increasing moles of gas. Slide41:  In a pressurized system which direction will the below equations move? 1) N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g) 2) COCl2(g)  CO(g) + Cl2(g) 3) Fe(aq) + SCN-(aq)  FeSCN2+(aq) 4) H2 + Cl2  2HCl 5) 2NO2(g)  N2O4(g) 6) 2SO2(g) + O2(g)  2SO3(g) Stress the equilibrium by changing the temperature:  Stress the equilibrium by changing the temperature Reactions are either Exothermic reactants  products + heat or Endothermic reactants + heat  products Adding heat will cause the exothermic to do what Adding heat will cause the endothermic to do what Removing heat will cause the exothermic to do what Get back to our exothermic Haber reaction:  Get back to our exothermic Haber reaction N2 + 3H2  2NH3 + heat What can you do to increase the production of NH3 + N2 + H2 - NH3 + pressure - heat 2NO2  N2O4 + Heat brown colorless:  2NO2  N2O4 + Heat brown colorless When you increase the heat which direction will the reaction be shifted? When you increase the heat which direction will the reaction be shifted? Slide45:  So there are basically three influences on a dynamically balanced system 1)   increase or decrease of a reactant or product 2)   increase or decrease of the temperature 3)   increase or decrease of the pressure Of all these three influences only temperature will change the equilibrium constant. All the other influences cause the concentrations to adjust in order to establish the Keq :  Of all these three influences only temperature will change the equilibrium constant. All the other influences cause the concentrations to adjust in order to establish the Keq Remember this

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