PPT CH05

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Published on August 9, 2007

Author: Gulkund

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Chapter 5Psychology and Crime:  Chapter 5 Psychology and Crime Chapter Objectives (1 of 3) :  Chapter Objectives (1 of 3) Understand the difference between psychiatric and psychological criminology. Know the gist of psychoanalytic theory, including Freudian elements of personality and defense mechanisms. Know how psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis has been applied to delinquents and criminals. Chapter Objectives (2 of 3) :  Chapter Objectives (2 of 3) Comprehend the principles of learning (operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning) and how they relate to theories of crime. Understand the two areas of cognitive psychology (cognitive structure and cognitive content) and how they have been applied to criminal behavior. Chapter Objectives (3 of 3) :  Chapter Objectives (3 of 3) Distinguish between general personality research and research on criminal personality. Grasp the concepts involved in the debate on the relationship between IQ and criminal behavior. Know the policy implications derived from theories of learning, personality, and cognition. You Are the Criminologist:  You Are the Criminologist The BTK Killer Dennis L. Rader BTK: bind, torture, kill Convicted of killing 10 people Discussion How might a Freudian theorist explain Rader’s letters? Does Rader show signs of being a psychopath? What characteristics do or do not fit? Introduction :  Introduction How does a psychologist or psychiatrist develop and understand the criminal mind? What does psychology contribute to the study of the criminal mind? What is the psychological approach to the study of crime? Psychoanalytic Theory :  Psychoanalytic Theory Henry Maudsley (1835–1918): Criminals suffer from 'moral degeneracy,' a deficiency of moral sense. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): One can understand human behavior best by examining early childhood experiences. Freudian Elements of Personality :  Freudian Elements of Personality Conscious v. Unconscious Mind Id Superego Ego Freudian Elements of Personality:  Freudian Elements of Personality Lester and Van Voorhis Id: 'If it feels good, do it!' Superego: conscience – 'Stealing is wrong.' Ego: psychological thermostat that regulates the wishes of the id with the social restrictions of the superego. Freudian Elements of Personality :  Freudian Elements of Personality Two sources of anxiety 1. Desire is not met. 2. Unconscious desire becomes conscious. Freudian Explanations of Delinquency:  Freudian Explanations of Delinquency Human nature is inherently antisocial Id: infants start life with antisocial drives Superego: forms from experience Ego: helps to negotiate demands for instant gratification with acceptable behavior Policy Implications of Freudian Theory:  Policy Implications of Freudian Theory Drawbacks Difficult to test empirically Cannot be directly observed and measured Still maintains a place in psychology of criminal behavior Behavioral Psychology:  Behavioral Psychology Differs from psychoanalytical theory Focuses on specific behaviors All behavior is learned Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Three types of learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational (vicarious) learning Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Classical Conditioning Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Operant Conditioning Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Positive reinforcement: increases the target behavior by rewarding the individual Negative reinforcement: increases the target behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus Punishment: reduces the odds of the target behavior being repeated Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Direct parental control: theorists tie delinquency to parents’ failure to effectively condition their children away from negative behaviors Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Glueck and Glueck: inconsistent and harsh punishment correlates with delinquent children Patterson: effective parenting (monitoring, punishing, and reinforcing behavior) correlates with nondeliquent children Harris: parental behaviors have few effects on the child’s long-term development Principles of Learning:  Principles of Learning Modeling Theory :  Modeling Theory Observational learning: role modeling the behavior of others. Albert Bandura (Bobo doll experiments): learning is not based on trial and error (operant conditioning). Effects on criminal behaviors are difficult to determine. Media and Crime :  Media and Crime Does media (TV and movies) influence aggression, violence, and criminal behavior? Conducive to role modeling: Perpetrators not punished Targets of violence show little pain Few long-term negative consequences Media and Crime :  Media and Crime Evidence suggests that reducing exposure to media violence reduces aggression and violence in children. Policy Implications of Behaviorism :  Policy Implications of Behaviorism Criminals can learn pro-social behaviors to replace criminal actions Aversion therapy Token economy Cognitive Psychology :  Cognitive Psychology Humans’ ability to engage in complex thoughts influences behavior Cognitions (like behaviors) can be learned Focus on Cognitive structure (how people think) Cognitive content (what people think) Cognitive Structure:  Cognitive Structure Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning: humans advance through predictable stages of moral reasoning Self-control Ability to empathize Ability to anticipate consequences Ability to control anger Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (1 of 2):  Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (1 of 2) Stage 1 Right is blindly obeying those with power and authority. Emphasis is on avoiding punishment. Interests of others are not considered. Stage 2 Right is furthering one’s own interests. Interests of others are important only as a way to satisfy self-interests. Stage 3 Moral reasoning is motivated by loyalties to others and a desire to live up to other’s standards. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (2 of 2):  Stage 4 Right is following the rules of society and maintaining important social institutions (e.g., family, community). Stage 5 Moral decisions are made by weighing individual rights against legal principles and the common good. Stage 6 Moral decisions are based on universal principles (e.g., human dignity, desire for justice). Principles are considered across different contexts and are independent of the law. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (2 of 2) Cognitive Content:  Cognitive Content Rationalizations or denials that support criminal behavior For example, a criminal thinks, 'I’m not really hurting anyone.' Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts, but the relationship (causation or correlation) to crime is unclear. Extremely common for sex offenders Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology:  Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive theory translates easily into practice. Cognitive skills programs teach offenders cognitive skills like moral reasoning, anger management, or self-control. Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology:  Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive restructuring attempts to change the content of an individual’s thoughts. Combination cognitive-behavioral programs have had significant success. Personality and Crime:  Personality and Crime Crime and delinquency related to the presence of some personality trait Personality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstances Personality: the sum of personality traits that define a person Theory in Action:  Theory in Action Multisystematic therapy (MST) Creator Scott Henggeler and associates Reduces criminal behavior Comprehensive approach Targets many areas for change Uses many different techniques (not just cognitive-behavioral programs) Personality Traits and Crime:  Personality Traits and Crime A number of related traits combine to form super factors Several different models Five-factor model Tellegen’s personality model Recent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) Personality Traits and Crime (1 of 2):  Personality Traits and Crime (1 of 2) Personality dimensions in the MPQ Constraint Traditionalism Harm avoidance Control Negative emotionality Aggression Alienation Stress reaction Personality Traits and Crime (2 of 2):  Personality Traits and Crime (2 of 2) Personality dimensions in the MPQ Positive emotionality Achievement Social potency Well-being Social closeness Criminal Personality:The Psychopath:  Criminal Personality: The Psychopath Refers to a class of individuals with a distinct criminal personality Term widely misused throughout history Unclear determining factors Psychopathy checklist (PCL) looks for certain personality traits Criticism: Are psychopaths qualitatively different from other offenders? Policy Implications of Personality Theory:  Policy Implications of Personality Theory Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime. Criticism: Personality traits are often portrayed as impossible to change. You Are the Criminologist:  You Are the Criminologist Does Dennis Rader (BTK) show signs of being a psychopath? What characteristics of psychopathy appear to fit with Rader? What characteristics do not? Intelligence and Crime:  Intelligence and Crime Feeblemindedness was once thought to be a cause of crime. What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior? A Brief History of Intelligence Testing:  A Brief History of Intelligence Testing IQ tests measure mental differences from one person to another. Old methods included: Measuring one’s skull size Testing the ability to memorize These methods were determined to be insufficient. A Brief History of Intelligence Testing:  A Brief History of Intelligence Testing IQ test devised to identify students who were performing poorly in school and needed academic assistance Not meant to be a measuring device for intelligence Has concerns of cultural bias IQ and Crime:  IQ and Crime There is an IQ gap of 8–10 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class. IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior. IQ and Crime:  IQ and Crime Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang The Bell Curve Crime-IQ link consistently documented Criminologists continue to study the relationship. Policy Implications of the IQ-Crime Relationship :  Policy Implications of the IQ-Crime Relationship Is IQ a measure of native intelligence or something else? Is IQ a direct cause of crime or does it influence other factors that cause criminal behavior? What do criminologists believe about IQ and its direct or indirect relationship to crime? Conclusion:  The common emphasis of all psychological theories is on the individual. Each theory must be evaluated on its ability to account for criminality. Not all theories are well supported by evidence. Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs. Conclusion

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