Published on April 25, 2019
Group AAAJ Research Project: Group AAAJ Research Project Amanda Tafoya, Alexah Leamons, Anyssia Johnson, Joseph Martinez Literature Review Highlights : Literature Review Highlights Samples mainly included college-aged students (ages 18-25). Literature showed that there is a gender difference between caffeine consumption. Mostly that men consume more coffee than women. 50% of men drink coffee versus 32% of women (D’Souza 2018). Most studies were conducted through surveys, but there were also twin studies conducted to look for a genetic component to caffeine consumption (Laitala et.al 2008) Caffeine takes less time to activate in males (Adan et.al 2008) Reasons for consumption included stress and enhancing mood and performance (Mahoney 2018). Literature Review Highlights Continued: Literature Review Highlights Continued Tifferet, Shani, & Cohen (2013) sought to explore the differences in caffeine use between males and females, in regards to the brands of caffeine products and the need to express their status in social circles. The study found that men are more likely than women to purchase higher brand caffeine products than women. In the study by Roth (2015), they tested the way different caffeine, mainly coffee, intake has an effect on an individual's mood and thinking and the duration of the effects. They found that individuals would peak in mood 2.5 hours after consuming coffee and then decrease at the 5 hour mark. V.L. Errisuiriz et. al writes, “findings indicate greater stress is associated with poor dietary choices among college freshmen” (V.L. Errizuiriz et. al., p. 211, 2013). This idea may explain why there is an increase in caffeine consumption in college-aged individuals. Method: Method Research consisted of 26 participants, both men and women, ranging from non graduate to graduate students including family. Survey was conducted through a volunteered basis and was distributed via social media (facebook, twitter) Survey consisted of 10 questions, 8 qualitative questions and 2 quantitative questions. Qualitative questions were answered through a series of “strongly agree to strongly Disagree” while qualitative question were answered to participants discretion. Results: Results Of 26 respondents 23% were male and 76% female It was broken down into four specific attributes Preference Influence on Alertness Brands influence on choice Differing of Price Mood was one of the biggest factors prevalent when it came to choosing coffee or tea The research was inconclusive when it came to supporting or going against our hypothesis Discussion: Discussion Current study supports previous studies that coffee is the preferred choice between coffee and tea (Mahoney, 2018) Current study also found that caffeine is mainly used for alertness and needing to feel awake, which supports previous research (Agoston et. al, 2017) Current study found that women preferred coffee over tea which is contrary to previous research which showed women drank less coffee than men with taste being a factor ( Ghali (2016) and Demura et.al (2013) Discussion continued: Discussion continued Limitations of current study are… Size of sample Due to size of sample, lack of generalizability Respondents were female by majority which may represent a gender bias in the data Unable to directly link gender to responses Future research should… Control for different additives into novelty coffee and tea drinks Include other genders now included Update studies to identify new patterns of caffeine use with new social norms References: References Adan et al. Early effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on subjective state and gender differences. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 2008; 32 (7): 1698 DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.07.005 Al Ghali, R. M., Al Shaibi, H., Al Majed, H., & Haroun, D. (2016). Caffeine Consumption among Zayed University Students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study. Arab Journal of Nutrition & Exercise, 1(3), 131. Retrieved from https://knepublishing . com/index. php/AJNE/article/view/1230/2680 Brice, C. F., & Smith, A. P. (2002). Factors associated with caffeine consumption. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 53, 55-64. Demura, S., Aoki, H., Mizusawa, T., Soukura, K., Noda, M., & Sato, T. (2013). Gender Differences in Coffee Consumption and Its Effects in Young People. Food and Nutrition Sciences,04(07), 748-757. doi:10.4236/fns.2013.47096 D'Souza, J., & D'Souza, J. (2015, May 20). Coffee Consumption Differs Between Genders , According To This Infographic. Retrieved February 10, 2019, from https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/05/20/coffee-consumption_n_7315642.html. Errisuriz, V. L., Pasch, K. E., & Perry, C. L. (2016). Perceived stress and dietary choices: The moderating role of stress management. Eating Behaviors,22, 211-216. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.06.008 References continued: References continued Laitala, V. S., Kaprio, J., & Silventoinen, K. (2008). Genetics of coffee consumption and its stability. Addiction, 103(12), 2054–2061. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02375.x Mahoney, C., Giles, G., Marriott, B., Judelson, D., Glickman, E., Geiselman, P. and Lieberman, H. (2018). Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students. Clinical Nutrition. Olsen, N. L. (2013). Caffeine Consumption Habits and Perceptions among University of New Hampshire Students. University of New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Scholars' Repository,1-67. Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://scholars.unh.edu/honors/103. Paulus, R., Roth, A., Titus, L., Chen, R., Bridges, M. C., & Woodyard, S. (2015). Impact of Various Caffeine Vehicles on Mood and Cognitive, Neurological and Physiological Functions Over Five Hours. Ohio Journal of Science , 115(2 ), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.18061/ojs.v115i2.4607 Penolazzi, B., Natale, V., Leone, L., & Russo, P. M. (2012). Individual differences affecting caffeine intake. Analysis of consumption behaviours for different times of day and caffeine sources. Appetite, 58(3), 971-977. Tifferet, S., Shani, N., & Cohen, H. (2013). Gender Differences in the Status Consumption of Coffee. Human Ethology Bulletin, 28(3), 5-9.