powders

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Information about powders
Science-Technology

Published on January 25, 2012

Author: vhbhaskar

Source: authorstream.com

POWDERS: POWDERS Prepared By : Mr. Naresh Rajgor, Assistant Professor, M.P. Patel College of Pharmacy, Kapadwanj POWDERS: POWDERS Definition: “ Powders are homogeneous mixtures of drugs and chemicals as a dry , fine state of subdivision. Characters of good powders: Finest state of subdivision. A perfectly homogenious preparation. Small particle size, large surface area and high absorptive capacity. PowerPoint Presentation: Advantages of Powder 1. Flexibility 2. Ease of administration: 3. Rapid Therapeutic Effect 4. Stability Disadvantages: Not suitable for dispensing unpleasant, hygroscopic drug which readily exposure to the atmosphere. Inaccuracy of dose, particularly in bulk powders PowerPoint Presentation: Divided Powders: Divided powders are dispensed in the form of individual doses. Preparation of divided powders: 1. Size –reduction 2. Mixing 3. Dividing 4. Packing. PowerPoint Presentation: Size Reduction: A. Trituration B. Pulverization by intervention C. Levigation (Wet Grinding) 2. Mixing of Powders: Spatulation Trituration Sifting- (Brush and sieve) Tumbling PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Dividing powder Mixtures: Estimation Blocking and dividing. Powder Measures Weighing each powder 4. Packaging: Powder Papers. Vegetable Parchment Paraffined Paper Light weight Bond Paper b. Envelops c. Powder Boxes PowerPoint Presentation: Sr. No. PROBLEMS REMEDIES 1 Powders containing hygroscopic and Deliquescent ingredient EX: Amm. Bromide, Chloride, Citrate, Iodide, Pot. Citrate, Cal. Chloride Dispense in granular form Do not reduce to a very fine powder Use double wrapped or cellophane envelopes Use of light Mag. Oxide as adsorbent. 2. Powder containing Efflorescent ingredients (Substance liberate their water of crystallization are said to be efflorescent) EX: Alum, Sod. Acetate, Atropine Sulphate , Sod. Phosphate, Citric acid, Codeine Phosphate 1. Use corresponding anhydrous salt and double wrapped to prevent absorption of moisture from the air. PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Powder Containing Eutectic Mixtures (It is the proportion of components which will give the lowest melting point and liquefaction) EX: Acetanilide, Aspirin, Camphor, Menthol, Phenol, Thymol. When eutectic mixture is present in small proportion and other solid ingredients are present. Liquefiable substance should first triturate forming eutectic. All other liquids are added and other substances in the form of fine powder are gradually incorporated. 4. Incorporation of Liquids In case of small proportion of liquid, liquid may triturated with an equal weight of the powder and reminder of the powder be added portion wise. An adsorbent is incorporated if necessary. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Incorporation of Extracts/Tinctures Some extract may be available in powder form. List: belladonna Tincture, Peppermint Spirit Nitroglycerin Spirit Replace liquid extract with an equivalent amount of corresponding dry extract. If the dry extract not available, liquid may be evaporate to a dry state. Pilular Extract may be mixed wit ha lactose or other ingredients and reduced to a dry powder by evaporation. 6. Powder Containing volatile substances EX: Menthol, Essential oils, Camphor, Eucalyptus, Thymol Double wrapped and inner paper being paraffined or use cellophane envelops sealed with heat. PowerPoint Presentation: 7. Powder Containing Explosive mixture Oxiding agent: Pot. Chlorate, Pot. Dichromate, Pot. Nitrate, Pot. Citrate Reducing agents: Charcoal, Sulphur, Tannic Acid. Use minimum pressure while triturating. Use tumbling. Powders separately and then mix. powder- separately and dispense then in separate powder papers. 8. Powders containing potent drug. Potent drugs are not directly weighable. Take minimum weighable quantity, add diluent (Lactose) and Mix. It is known as trituration. Take proper quantity from Trituration. BULK POWDERS: BULK POWDERS Powders which are taken in large doses are dispensed in bulk. Bulk powders are restricted to those powders that are non-potent and can be measured safely in a spoon by patient. Antacids, Laxatives, powders for douches fall in this category. The usual containers or bulk powders are pasteboard boxes or wide mouth screw-cap glass jars. PowerPoint Presentation: A. EFFERVESCNT POWDERS: An effervescent granules, powders or salts are the forms of medication for internal use consisting of a powdered or granulated mixture of citric acid, tartaric acid or sodiumbiphosphate, bicarbonate and other medicinal agents. In the presence of water, the acid and the base react to liberate carbon dioxide and producing effervescence. They dissolved in water and taken immediately after effervescences. PowerPoint Presentation: Advantage: The carbonated solution is a pleasant vehicle for bitter and saline salts such as magnesium sulfate. The Co 2 hastens the absorption, stimulates the grow of gastric juice. The Co 2 acts as carminative. PowerPoint Presentation: Formulation: Sod. Bicarb. Powder - 20.40 gm Tartaric acid powder - 10.80 gm Citric acid - 07.20 gm Refined sugar powder - 06.00 gm Importance of each ingredients: Sodium Bicarbonate: This reacts with the acids when the effervescent preparation is added to water, the carbon dioxide is evolved, provide effervescence. The medicinal agent is dissolved in carbonate water and mask the bitter and saline taste of drugs. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Citric acid/ Tartaric acid: Tartaric acids is hydrous so if only tartaric acid is used some non-solvent liquid would have to be used, otherwise resulting granules will not be firm but crumble readily and have salty taste. Citric acid contains one mole of water of crystallization, its use alone would give a sticky mixture which will be difficult to granulate So relative proportion of citric and tartaric acid is based upon quantity of water needed to make coherent powder. PowerPoint Presentation: On heating citric acid, loss water of crystallization and partial interaction between acids and sodium bicarbonate take place, so more water is formed which act as binder. Citric Acid Heat H 2 O + Anhydrous Citric acid For partial decomposition 3NaHCO 3 + H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 +3 Co 2 +3H 2 O Act as binder 3. Medicaments: For therapeutic action. It should be anhydrous and soluble in water. 4. Sugar: As Sweetening agent PowerPoint Presentation: Preparation: Wet method. Dry or fusion method. Wet Method. Powder each ingredients and mix them. Bind the powder mass by moistening with non-solvent usually alcoholic mixture and prepare dough-like mass. The material is then passed through a No. 60 sieve and granules are dried at temp. about 50 o C. The granules are again passed through the sieve and packaged in airtight containers. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Fusion method: All ingredients are except the citric acid are dried and passed through a sieve no. 60 , powders are thoroughly mixed and freshly powdered citric is added last. The mixture is spread in porcelain dish and placed on a water bath (95 to 100 o C ) without stirring. A pasty mass is soon formed. Granulation, drying ad regranulation are then carried out. Containers: Wide mouth airtight bottles. EXAMPLES: Sodium Phosphate NF- Use- Cathartic Effervescent Comp. powder BPC b. Dusting Powders: b. Dusting Powders Dusting powders are generally used externally. Dusting powder must possess the following characteristics. Homogeneous No local irritation Flow easily Spread uniformly. Stick to the skin Good covering capability Good adsorptive and absorptive properties Fine state (100 Sieve) PowerPoint Presentation: INGREDIENTS: STARCH: It has the general qualities of dusting powder, but it supports bacterial growth. It imparts easy flow. Talcum: It is inert, but potential source of infection. Kaolin: Boric Acid: Adhesive like Aluminium Stearate , Mag. Stearate , Zinc Oxide, Zinc Stearate . Medicated dusting powders may also be used and it may be applied either to the intact skin or to open wound, while non medicated are not used for broken skin. C.INSUFFLATION:: C.INSUFFLATION: They are finely divided dusting powders introduced into body cavities. Examples: Tooth Sockets -Ears -Nose –Vagina -Throat It is applied by insufflator . Insufflator consist of bulb, chamber and delivery nozzle. Powder is placed in chamber and when bulb is compressed, the air current carries the fine particles through the nozzle to cavities. It produces local as well as systemic effects. Disadvantages: Non- Uniform Dosage. Particles stick to each other and to wall of the insufflator . Cachets (wafer capsules): Cachets (wafer capsules) Cachets, or rice flour capsules are dosage containers are formed by sealing two concave disks of wafer sheet. Cachets usually are referred to by their trade name. Konseal but known as cachets de pain, chartulae Amylacea and capsule Amylaceae. Advantages: For administration of nauseating and unpleasant taste. PowerPoint Presentation: Types: Wet seal: Because water is used to seal then. Dry seal: Require no moisture for sealing. Administration of cachets: Before administration a cachet should be immersed in water for a few seconds nd then placed on the tongue and swalloed with draught of water. Dispensing: Cachets are dispensed in boxes or tins in which they are packed on their edges or lying flat. Labelling: Immerse in water for a few seconds and then swallow with water. Official Preparation: Calcium/Sodium Amino Salicylate cachets Sodium Amino Salicylate & Isoniazide cachets. PowerPoint Presentation: MOULDED SOLID DOSAGE FORMS: Two Types: Hypodermic Tablet: They are dissolved in water for injection and resulting solution is injected hypodermically. Tablet Triturates: They are made of fine powders moulded into shape while in a moist condition. They are small, flat-faced disks usually containing only the medicament and a diluents such as lactose. It is administered by placing them on the tongue and swallowing them with the drink of water. They are for very potent drugs given in small doses. EX: Strychnine, Atropine and Morphine. PowerPoint Presentation: FORMULATION: MEDICAMENTS DILUENTS- SHOULD BE FINE EX: Lactose, mannitol, Dextrose, Kaolin, Sucrose, PPT Chalk, Sodium Bicarbonate. MOISTENING AGENT: Alcohol, Water, Acetone, Hydro-alcoholic mixture. PowerPoint Presentation: PREPARATION : Standardization of mould: (Displacement Values) Moulds Process of Moulding : Dispensing: Dispensing in screw cap vial or in pill boxes. PowerPoint Presentation: LOZENGES “ Lozenges are made in small solid disk of medicated or flavoured disk like may be oblong, rectangular, octagonal short rod or cylinder. The weight of lozenge is usually 1 gm to 2 gm. 1. Preparation: Making the mass: Basically it consist of medicaments, powdered sucrose, gum and an inert substances such as starch or dextrin to give body. PowerPoint Presentation: SIMPLE BASE: Sucrose Fine Powder 100 gm Acacia Fine Powder 7 gm Water t omake mass 9.5 gm 2. Rolling and Cutting: 3. Drying: Packaging/ Storage: Packed in air tight containers and kept in a cool place. PASTILLES: PASTILLES “ Pastilles are a soft variety of lozenge, usually transparent consisting of a medicament in a gelatin or glycero -gelatin base.” Acacia or sugar may be added when a firm, more slowly soluble pastilles are desired. Gelatin pastilles should have a weight about 2 gm. PowerPoint Presentation: Base: Soft base: Glycerin Gelatin Water Firm Base: Gelatin -30 gm Glycerin - 75 gm Acacia - 8 gm Aromatic Water - 60 gm More Firm Base: Gum Acacia - 18 P Sugar - 6 P Water - 80 P PowerPoint Presentation: Preparation: The gelatin is softened in the water by aid of heat and the glycerin is added and heat continued until a clear solution results. Medicinal agents are added just before the solution stiffens and stirred until the mass become fir enough to remain homogeneous. Pour mass into moulds. Another method is to pour the mass to form a sheet of the desired thickness, from which the individual Pastilles are cut with a punch or knife. Containers/ Storage same as lozenges PILLS: PILLS Definition : “Pills are small round or egg-shaped bodies for internal use” The usual weight from 100 to 300 mg. Advantages: Smallness of bulk and ease administration. Mask the taste of medicaments. Less exposure to air and light and hence more stable. Slow and continuous action. PowerPoint Presentation: Disadvantages: Not suitable when rapid action is desired. Not suitable for bulky powders or liquids. The drugs which are irritant in concentrated form should not be made into pills. Not uniform in weight. Ideal Requirements: Solubility-ready disintegration. Homogeneity- Uniform mixing and accurate dose. Uniformity in weight. Round and oval shape easy to swallow. Tasteless and elegance. PowerPoint Presentation: PREPARATION Making the mass Dividing the mass – Rolling, cutting, rounding. Shaping and Finishing Coating a. Varnishing b. Silvering/ Gold Coating c. Gelatin Coating d. Pearl Coating e. Chocolate Coating. f. Sugar Coating g. Enteric Coating. 5. Packing. PowerPoint Presentation: Classification of Pills: Powdered drugs and vegetables extracts Aloe, Resins and Gum resins Oils/Oleo Resins and Hydrocarbon Chemicals (Potent Medicaments)

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