Published on March 6, 2014
Poverty and Inequality in a Changing Context
Outline 1. What is poverty? What is inequality? A definition and link 2. Assessments of Poverty 2.1 Recent changes in global geography of poor 3. MDG’s post 2015 Macro and micro economic measures 4. Activity and Discussion
What is Poverty? It is possible to define and measure poverty in a variety of ways Monetary – Utility, basic needs Capabilities –Wellbeing, functionings (Sen 1999) Inequalities – Relative, social exclusion Participatory – self defined, NGO, CBO
Defining and Assessing Poverty We must initiate and design policies to impact poverty This can only be done if we can measure poverty Measurements can only be done if poverty is clearly defined
Ways of Measuring Poverty Monetary poverty: Consumption, Poverty line measures: definition of the poverty line, headcount index, poverty severity Capability: Basic needs, mortality, literacy, water, child malnutrition Inequality: Income inequality, size distribution, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient Participatory: Not yet adapted
New Geography of the Global Poor - Most of the world‘s poor now live in middle- income countries (MIC), e.g. India - Shift from LIC (low income) to MIC Need for a new model of development assistance No justification to exlude MIC‘s from aid programmes future of MDG after 2015? Tax evasion is also becoming a big issue
What are the MDG’s? Engaging targets with comprehensible objectives Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Improve maternal health Achieve universal primary education Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases Promote gender equality and empower women Ensure environmental sustainability Reduce child mortality Global partnership for development
MDG’s post 2015 A new framework? MACRO ECONOMIC - Foreign aid eases pressure to mobilize resources within country - Correctives to make existing rules less unfair (aid, repayment) - Need for positive discrimination/ affirmative action - More equal partnership between developed and developing countries - Focus on means rather than ends Means rather than ends MICRO ECONOMIC - Framework for states to reshape policies in national context - Employment creation Public provision of services i.e. education, healthcare - Accountability of government people are actors not beneficiaries - Participatory development
MDG’s from different perspectives 1. Read the article and identify the organisation/perspective it is written from 2. Critically evaluate according to these points: • • • a) Criticisms/failures b) Positive points/successes c) Possible solutions/new ideas 3. Identify the discourse used 4. Feedback
The changing context ... Previous chapters build the case for focusing on inequality, highlighting the stark contrasts within and between countries.
Changing Social and Economic Context 17. The scandal of poverty and growing inequality Poverty threatens life and human dignity. It is not a destiny, but the
Introduction [Poverty and Inequality] ... turn to changing political and social conditions ... must be carefully quantified and placed in the proper context.
... sets this situation within its historical context, ... Changing Inequality ... with higher poverty. Second, widening inequality may lead to ...
Research by PRC associates and affiliates in poverty and inequality with a ... job changes that involve changing ... in the context of ...
Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment in South Africa: Context, ... A comprehensive approach to poverty and inequality will thus have to ...
Our work focuses on poverty and wellbeing through the lens of equity and inequality. Poverty ... In this context, ... The global poverty 'problem' is changing.
How Much Should We Care About Changing Income Inequality ... relative poverty is based on a changing real ... Here are two contexts in which it has ...