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POSTMODERN MANAGEMENT

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Published on October 30, 2007

Author: Talya

Source: authorstream.com

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POSTMODERN MANAGEMENT:  POSTMODERN MANAGEMENT The Emerging Partnership Between Employees and Stockholders By William McDonald Wallace PROLOGUE :  PROLOGUE NEW SCIENCES SHIFT WORLDVIEWS FROM MODERN TO POSTMODERN QUANTUM MECHANICS (1900-1927) CHAOS (COMPLEXITY) THEORY and SELF ORGANIZATION (AUTOPOIESIS) in the 1970s PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM (1970s) THE SHIFT TO POSTMODERN :  THE SHIFT TO POSTMODERN FROM MECHANISTIC DETERMINISM TO OPEN CONTINGENCY FROM A CLOCK WORK UNIVERSE TO A PARTICIPATORY UNIVERSE FROM PHYSICAL TO RELATIONAL REALITY FROM CONTINUOUS EVOLUTION TO PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESS STRATEGY AND POLICY:  IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESS STRATEGY AND POLICY FROM MECHANISTIC TO ORGANIC POLICY FORMAT FOR BUSINESS ENTERPRISES EMPHASIS SHIFTS FROM STARS TO TEAMS; FROM INDIVIDUALISM TO TEAM SPIRIT AND ESPRIT DE CORPS FROM FORCASTING THE FUTURE TO FLEXIBLE RESPONSES TO SURPRISE FROM TOP DOWN TO BOTTOM UP MANAGEMENT THE SHIFT IN EVOLUTION:  THE SHIFT IN EVOLUTION STEVEN J. GOULD MODIFIES DARWIN FROM A CONTINUOUS TO DISCONTINOUS PROCESS GOULD CALLED PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM TO FIT THE EVIDENCE CULTURAL (AND ECONOMIC) EVOLUTION FITS INTO THIS NEW VIEW OF PROCESS NEW TECHNOLOGY CHANGES CULTURE MUCH LIKE MUTATIONS IN DNA CHANGE OUR ANATOMY PROCESS OF PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM:  PROCESS OF PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM ECOSYSTEMS SELF-ORGANIZE INTO STABLE EQUILIBRIUM (STASIS) STASIS IS THE “NORMAL” STATE WHEN LITTLE CHANGE OCCURS SERIOUS DISRUPTIONS UPSET STASIS TRIGGERING THE “PUNCTUATION” PHASE OF ACTUAL EVOLUTION RECOVERY FROM DISRUPTION “AIMS” TO RESTORE STASIS (SELF ORGANIZED) THE CHANGE PROCESS CYCLE (F.R.O.C.A):  THE CHANGE PROCESS CYCLE (F.R.O.C.A) DISRUPTIONS CREATE CHAOS THAT CREATE NEW FRONTIERS (F) OF RISK AND OPPORTUNITY CHAOS OFFERS RELEASE (R) FROM PRIOR ECOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS LEADING TO OVEREXPLOITATION (O) FOLLOWED BY AN (OFTEN TRAUMATIC) CRASH (C) FOLLOWED BY ADAPTATION (A)TO A NEW SET OF CONSTRAINTS ENDING IN STASIS EXAMPLES OF PAST FRONTIERS OF CHANGE:  EXAMPLES OF PAST FRONTIERS OF CHANGE UNKNOWN DISRUPTION TRIGGERS MULTI-CELLED ORGANISMS 600 mya POSSIBLE ASTEROID HIT GIVES RISE TO DINOSAURS 200 mya YUCATAN ASTEROID HIT WIPES OUT DINOSAURS, EVOLVES MAMMALS 65 mya CLIMATE DISRUPTIONS EVOLVES PRIMATES, HOMINIDS, AND HUMANS FROM 6 mya to about 30,000 years ago HUMAN ANATOMICAL AND CULTURAL CO-EVOLUTION:  HUMAN ANATOMICAL AND CULTURAL CO-EVOLUTION THE “RISEN APE” 6 mya (drought) THE SMARTER APE (HOMINID) 2 mya EARLY HUMANS (about 1 mya) MIDDLE HUMANS (.5 mya) MODERN HUMANS (HOMO SAPIENS) about 40,000 years ago and all within the context of a stone age technostructure CULTURAL EVOLUTION:  CULTURAL EVOLUTION 30, 000 YEARS AGO TO DATE CULTURAL EVOLUTION PRE-EMPTS ANATOMICAL INVENTED TECHNOLOGY DRIVES CULTURAL CHANGE MUCH AS MUTATIONS TO DNA DRIVE ANATOMICAL CHANGE. THE TECHNO-STRUCTURE IS TO CULTURE AS DNA IS TO OUR ANATOMY HUNTER-GATHERER STAGE:  HUNTER-GATHERER STAGE ALL EARLY HUMAN CULTURES HAD A SIMILAR NEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY DIVERSITY WAS DRIVEN MAINLY BY CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY BY THE END OF THE LAST ICE AGE HUMANS HAD BEGUN TO OVER-EXPLOIT THE GAME SHIFT TO AGRICULTURE:  SHIFT TO AGRICULTURE FROM NOMADIC GATHERING TO SETTLED FARMING BRINGS ABOUT A NEW WAY OF LIFE. FROM 20 SQ. KM TO FEED EACH PERSON FARMING NEEDS ONLY AN ACRE OR TWO. HUMAN BIRTH RATES RISE POPULATION BEGINS TOEXPLODE NEW TECHNOLOGY:  NEW TECHNOLOGY METAL TOOLS BEGIN TO REPLACE STONE TOOLS ANIMALS DOMESTICATED WHEELS (AND CARTS) INVENTED WRITING BEGINS TO EMERGE GOVERNMENT AND ORGANIXZED RELIGION EMERGE CHAPTER ONE THE RISE OF BUREAUCRACY:  CHAPTER ONE THE RISE OF BUREAUCRACY HUGE INCREASE IN PRODUCTION OF FOOD LEAD TO HUGE INCREASES IN POPULATION LEAD TO THE DIVISION OF LABOR RESULTING IN CIVILIZATION BASED ON CITIES HYDRAULIC AGRICULTURE:  HYDRAULIC AGRICULTURE NEED FOR LARGE IRRIGATION NETWORKS DOMINANCE RESURGES FROM DORMANT PRIMATE PAST BUREAUCRACY, DESPOTIC GOVT. AND ORGANIZED RELIGION ALL ARISE BY EARLY CIVILIZATION EGALITARIAN SOCIETY REPLACED BY DESPOTISM:  EGALITARIAN SOCIETY REPLACED BY DESPOTISM LARGE POPULATIONS OVERWHELM EGALITARIAN KINSHIP GROUPS ANARCHY EMERGES WITHIN TRIBES AS FAMILIES AND CLANS BEGIN TO BATTLE EACH OTHER PEOPLE CREATE AUTHORITY TO BRING ABOUT ORDER EVOLUTION OF DESPOTISM:  EVOLUTION OF DESPOTISM HEAD MEN ELECTED TO SETTLE ARGUMENTS THEN WEAK CHIEFS EMERGE STRONG CHIEFS EMERGE CHIETAINS EMERGE KINGS AND GOD KINGS EMERGE, ALL DRIVEN BY RISING POPULATION SOCIAL STRATIFICATION:  SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AS POPULATION RISES CHIEFS BECOME MORE POWERFUL AND REQUIRE MORE DIVISION OF LABOR TAXES AND TRIBUTE NEEDED TO FINANCE PUBLIC WORKS WAR CAPTIVES BECOME SLAVES ALL ANCIENT CULTURES SLAVE-BASED WITH MINOR EXCEPTIONS RISE OF CASTE SYSTEMS:  RISE OF CASTE SYSTEMS TO RANK OCCUPATIONS OR JOBS IN ORDER OF SOCIAL WORTH CREATES A CASTE SYSTEM. EARLY PRIESTHOODS CREATED FIRST CASTE SYSTEMS AND THEY DOMINATED THE ANCIENT WORLD USEFUL WORK USUALLY RANKED IN THE LOWEST CASTE CASTE AND INNOVATION:  CASTE AND INNOVATION CASTE SYSTEMS AND SLAVERY SERVED TO RETARD NEW TECHNOLOGY IN MOST OF THE ANCIENT WORLD SLAVES DID MOST OF THE WORK. THUS, THOSE BEST PLACED TO INNOVATE HAD NO SOCIAL STATUS INTELLEGENTSIA AVOIDED PHYSICAL WORK TO AVOID BEING TAINTED BY IT INNOVATION SUPPRESSED:  INNOVATION SUPPRESSED FROM ABOUT 4,000 BCE TO ABOUT 1200 CE, LITTLE INNOVATION OR ECONOMIC GROWTH OCCURRED STANDARDS OF LIVING REMAINED CONSTANT AND GOVERNMENTS WERE MOSTLY KLEPTOCRATIC EFFECT OF CHRISTIANITY:  EFFECT OF CHRISTIANITY CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY RAISED MORAL QUESTIONS ABOUT CASTE AND SLAVERY EVEN SLAVES EQUAL IN THE EYES OF GOD NEW TESTAMENT PLACES WEALTH UNDER A MORAL CLOUD ROME COLLAPSES AS CHRISTIANITY THRIVES:  ROME COLLAPSES AS CHRISTIANITY THRIVES EMPIRES EMERGED TO BRING LAW AND ORDER TO BORDER REGIONS AND QUELL ANARCHY ROME OVER-EXPANDED AND COULD NOT SUSTAIN THEIR LEGIONS BARBARIANS BEGAN TO WIN AND SLAVE SUPPLY DRIVES UP ROMES WEAKENS AND THEN COLLAPSES IN 476 CE FROCA TRIGGERED BY ROME’S COLLAPSE INTO CHAOS:  FROCA TRIGGERED BY ROME’S COLLAPSE INTO CHAOS LOSS OF ROMAN AUTHORITY PROVIDED ECOLOGICAL RELEASE FOR CRAFTSMEN-INNOVATORS EUROPE DECENTRALIZED AND A SURGE OF INNOVATION FOLLOWS WATCHES, ARTILLERY, PRINTING PRESSES, COMPASS, SQUARE RIGGED SHIPS, AND MUCH ELSE PROTESTANT REFORMATION:  PROTESTANT REFORMATION PRINTING ENERGIZES THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION CALVINISM RESTORES THE DIGNITY OF USEFUL WORK AND RESTORES THE MORALITY OF WEALTH THUS FOSTERING EARLY CAPITALISM IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BUREAUCRACY AND “RATIONAL” CASTE:  BUREAUCRACY AND “RATIONAL” CASTE WORKERS HIRED TO DO SPECIFIC JOBS PRICED AT SPECIFIC RATES EQUITY PRINCIPLE STATES EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK, MORE PAY FOR IMPORTANT WORK, ETC. PAY DIFFERENTIALS = STATUS DIFFERENTIALS = CASTE JOB EVALUATION MAKES IT “RATIONAL” DIVISION OF LABOR:  DIVISION OF LABOR FAMOUS PIN FACTORY EXAMPLE DIVISION OF LABOR DOES IN FACT INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY THEORY OF “RATIONAL” ECONOMIC MAN AS PURE INDIVIDUALIST NO THOUGHT OF ESPRIT DE CORPS OR LOYALTY COMMODITY THEORY OF LABOR AND ENCLOSURE :  COMMODITY THEORY OF LABOR AND ENCLOSURE ENCLOSURE CREATES ROOTLESS, DEMORALIZED RURAL REFUGEES FIRST INDUSTRIAL PROLETARIAT HIGH RATES OF CRIME,ALCOHOLISM LABOR SCORNED AND DISTRUSTED COMMODITY THEORY OF LABOR A NATURAL OUTCOME OF ENCLOSURE COMPETITION AND MARKET THEORY:  COMPETITION AND MARKET THEORY INVISIBLE HAND OF COMPETITION REGULATES FREE MARKET BRITAIN IGNORES THE NEED FOR INTERNAL COOPERATION JAPAN REJECTS THE COMMODITY THEORY OF LABOR AS IMMORAL “COMPETITION BETWEEN FIRMS, COOPERATION WITHIN THEM” CHAPTER TWO :  CHAPTER TWO MODERN BUREAUCRACY BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP:  BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP WORKS WELL FOR CONTRACT WORK WORKS POORLY FOR PERMANENT STAFF BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES JOB DEFENSIVENESS INCLUDING POWER STUGGLES EMPIRE BUILDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE SUB-OPTIMIZATION AROUND JOBS AND DEPARTMENTS INSTEAD OF THE WHOLE OTHER DYSFUNCTIONS:  OTHER DYSFUNCTIONS OVERSTAFFING ESPECIALLY IN MANAGEMENT OVERLAYERING EXCESS LINKS IN CHAIN OF COMMAND OVER-REGULATION (RED TAPE) RULES PASS BEYOND THE REALM OF DIMINISHING RETURNS AND HAMSTRING OPERATIONS THESE PROBLEMS ARE CROSS CULTURAL STATUS IMPERATIVE :  STATUS IMPERATIVE PEOPLE REFLEXIVELY DEFEND THEIR ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTITY AND STATUS IN THE SHORT RUN PEOPLE STRIVE TO INCREASE THEIR STATUS AS THEY GAIN EXPERIENCE IN THE LONGER RUN. AUTOPOIESIS APPLIES TO ALL LIFE:  AUTOPOIESIS APPLIES TO ALL LIFE DEFINED AS SELF REFERENCE OR SELF CREATING; PROTECTING THE INTEGRITY OF IDENTITY APPLIES TO ALL LIFE AUTOPOIESIS ALSO ENERGIZES SELF ORGANIZATION AND ALSO HELPS TO RESTORE THE COMMUNITY AFTER MAJOR DISASTERS BODY’S ABILITY TO HEAL WOUNDS ALSO DRIVEN BY AUTOPOIESIS AUTOPOIESIS AND LOYALTY :  AUTOPOIESIS AND LOYALTY PRIMARY IDENTITIES DETERMINE MAIN LOYALTIES GREATER THAN SELF FAMILY CLAN TRIBE NATION RELIGION IDEOLOGY ORGANIZATION JOB OR PROFESSION AUTOPOIESIS AND FROCA:  AUTOPOIESIS AND FROCA FRONTIER SOCIETY TRADITIONAL SOCIETY CHAPTER THREE:  CHAPTER THREE THE AUTOPOIESIS OF JOB DEFENSE SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AS REALITY:  SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AS REALITY SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS CREATE SOCIAL REALITIES DIFFERENT RELATIONSHIPS TEND TO INDUCE DIFFERENT BEHAVIORS PAYING THE JOB, NOT THE PERSON, ASSURES JOB DEFENSIVENESS JOB COMBINES IDENTITY, STATUS, AND ROLE. RULES AS RED TAPE:  RULES AS RED TAPE RED TAPE SERVES AS MAKE WORK OFTEN SERVES TO ELICIT BRIBES APPLY THE LETTER OR THE SPIRIT OF THE LAW (OR RULE)? PLATO’S PRINCIPLE JUDEO CHRISTIAN EXAMPLE “ITS MY JOB” KNOWING WHEN TO STOP IN MEDICINE CHAIN OF COMMAND VS. PROMOTION LADDER:  CHAIN OF COMMAND VS. PROMOTION LADDER CHAIN OF COMMAND NEEDS TO BE SHORT PROMOTION LADDER NEEDS TO BE LONG HOW TO CREATE MORE LAYERS TO ADD RUNGS TO THE PROMOTION LADDER WHY MAIN FRAME COMPUTERS ADDED JOBS INSTEAD OF WIPING THEM OUT INNOVATION VS BUREAUCRACY:  INNOVATION VS BUREAUCRACY USSR AND COLLAPSE OF SOVIETS LAYERS VS. PROBABILITY OF APPROVAL NOT INVENTED HERE SYNDROME BUREAUCRACY AFTER STABILLITY NOT INNOVATION OR CHANGE CHAPTER FOUR:  CHAPTER FOUR MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND FPCC THE SLOAN MODEL:  THE SLOAN MODEL ALFRED SLOAN AND THE MAKING OF GMC DIVISIONAL GROUPING OR FEDERAL DECENTRALIZATION FINANCE THE CONTROL FUNCTION ENTER ROBERT MCNAMARA FORECASTING, PLANNING, COMMAND AND CONTROL:  FORECASTING, PLANNING, COMMAND AND CONTROL THE WHIZ KIDS AT FORD MCNAMARA BECOMES PRESIDENT OF FORD THEN SEC. OF DEFENSE VIETNAM WAR BASED ON FPCC LOGICAL POSITIVISM RAF VS. V-1 RAIDS, EXAMPLE QUANT METHODS TAKE OVER IN ACADEMIA PIERRE LAPLACE AND DETERMINISM:  PIERRE LAPLACE AND DETERMINISM BASED ON NEWTON’S LAWS WORKS IN LINEAR CONDITIONS BREAKS DOWN IN NONLINEAR CONDITIONS (TURBULENCE) EVENTS OF THE 70’S AND 80’S END THE APPEAL OF FPCC NON-LINEAR CONTINGENCY:  NON-LINEAR CONTINGENCY EMERGENCE NEW HOLISTIC REALITIES EMERGE AS OLDER PARTS CONNECT THE NEW WHOLE IS NOT IMPLICIT IN THE OLDER PARTS POWERFUL TEAMS CAN EMERGE IN THIS FASHION CHAPTER FIVE:  CHAPTER FIVE “PEOPLE ARE OUR MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCE” CAPITAL AND LABOR:  CAPITAL AND LABOR TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT FOR CAPITAL TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT FOR LABOR CAPITAL HAS A CHOICE, LABOR DOES NOT MANAGEMENT THEORIES (MODERN):  MANAGEMENT THEORIES (MODERN) JETHRO, PLATO MACHIAVELLI MARX TAYLOR MAYO, MCGREGOR, FOLLET DRUCKER POSTMODERN THEORIES:  POSTMODERN THEORIES W. EDWARDS DEMING & TQM IN THE 1980’S HAMMER AND CHAMPY AND THE REENGINEERING IN THE 90’S LINCOLN ELECTRIC GRAYS HARBOR PAPER THE CONCEPT OF PARTNERING CHAPTER SIX:  CHAPTER SIX THE WAGE-RATE RATCHET NEW DEAL LABOR LAWS:  NEW DEAL LABOR LAWS DAVIS –BACON ACT WAGNER LABOR RELATIONS ACT FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AIMED TO GET WAGES UP IN THE FACE OF HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IT WORKED VERY WELL (+50%) EMPLOYMENT POLICIES:  EMPLOYMENT POLICIES DEPENDENCE ON HIRED LABOR TAKEN FOR GRANTED ADVERSARIAL RELATIONSHIP TAKEN AS A GIVEN EQUITY PRINCIPLE EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK MORE OR LESS PAY FOR MORE OR LESS IMPORTANT WORK RATCHET DRIVERS:  RATCHET DRIVERS WHIPSAW WAGE BARGAINING BUSINESS CYCLE SWINGS JOB EVALUATION UNDER-RATED JOBS RAISED IN PAY OVER-RATED JOBS MAINTAIN PAY INTERDEPENDENT JOBS CANNOT BE OBJECTIVELY RANK IN THEIR ORDER OF IMPORTANCE. CYCLICAL SKILL DILUTION:  CYCLICAL SKILL DILUTION NEW EMPLOYEES TAKE TIME TO LEARN THEIR JOBS THEY ARE SLOWER AND MAKE MISTAKES WHILE LEARNING FIRM MUST OVER-HIRE ON UPSWING BIDS WAGES UP COST OF TRAINING WASTED VIA LAYOFFS MACRO ECONOMIC EFFECTS:  MACRO ECONOMIC EFFECTS WAGE/PRICE SPIRAL AND COST PUSH INFLATION SINCE 1945 STAGFLATION (HIGHER RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT WITH HIGHER RATES OF INFLATION) (1973-1983) CHAPTER SEVEN:  CHAPTER SEVEN THE GREAT DEPRESSION (1929-1933) USA HARDEST HIT:  USA HARDEST HIT US INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT FALLS 40% INDUSTRIAL UNEMPLOYMENT = 40% GNP FELL FROM $104 b. TO $55.6 b BETWEEN 1929-1933 BRITISH GNP FELL ABOUT 10% IN THE SAME PERIOD. JAPAN’S GNP ROSE 6% THE FARM SECTOR WAS DIFFERENT:  THE FARM SECTOR WAS DIFFERENT FARM PRICES PLUNGE 50%+ VS. 15% FOR INDUSTRY LOW FARM OUTPUT PRICES, HIGH INPUT PRICES (INDUSTRY) FARM OUTPUT REMAINS STABLE FARM EMPLOYMENT RISES A BIT THEORIES OF THE CAUSE:  THEORIES OF THE CAUSE WORKERS REFUSE WAGE CUTS BUT THIS ARGUMENT IS UNPOPULAR KEYNES AND OVERSAVING PLUS MONEY ILLUSION MEANS AND ADMINISTERED PRICES FRIEDMAN AND THE FED WSJ AND SMOOT-HAWLEY TARIFF SCHUMPETER’S TRIPLE CYCLE PROBLEMS WITH KEYNES:  PROBLEMS WITH KEYNES KEYNES ARGUED SAY’S LAW FAILED BUT IT WORKED AS ADVERTISED IN THE FARM SECTOR SAVINGS RATE IN THE 1920’S ONLY 4%, HARDLY EXCESSIVE WHERE INDUSTRIAL INPUT PRICES FELL, SO DID OUTPUT PRICES AND PRODUCTION AND EMPLOYMENT REMAINED HIGHER PROBLEMS WITH MEANS:  PROBLEMS WITH MEANS WHERE INPUT PRICES FELL, SO DID OUTPUT PRICES EXAMPLES FROM FARM, OIL, AND AIRLINE SECTOR AUTO PRICES FELL BY 50% IN 1920’S JAPAN EVEN MORE OLIGOPOLISTIC THAN THE USA BUT ZAIBATSU CUT PRICES SHARPLY. PROBLEMS WITH FRIEDMAN:  PROBLEMS WITH FRIEDMAN HIGH INTEREST RATES HURT FARMERS MORE THAN BUSINESS BUT FARMERS STILL MAINTAINED EMPLOYMENT AND OUTPUT BECAUSE PRICES FELL SHARPLY. PROBLEMS WITH WSJ SMOOT HAWLEY THESIS:  PROBLEMS WITH WSJ SMOOT HAWLEY THESIS TRADE DOWN SHARPLY BEFORE SMOOT- HAWLEY TOOK EFFECT TARIFF BARRIERS DID NOT PREVENT JAPANESE EXPORTS FROM RISING SHARPLY SCHUMPETER’S TRIPLE CYCLE THEORY:  SCHUMPETER’S TRIPLE CYCLE THEORY GIVEN RIGID WAGE RATES THIS THEORY IS PLAUSIBLE BUSINESS CYCLE AT 3 YEARS CONSTRUCTION CYCLE AT 7 YEARS LONG WAVE CYCLE (MATURITY OF AUTO INDUSTRY) AT 30 YEARS IF ALL GO DOWN AT ONCE: CRASH CHAPTER EIGHT:  CHAPTER EIGHT CORPORATE PARTNERSHIP RELATIONSHIPS :  RELATIONSHIPS DIFFERENT RELATIONSHIPS CREATE DIFFERENT REALITIES PARTNERSHIP SETS UP A DIFFERENT SET OF MOTIVATIONS INTEGRATES INTERESTS OF CAPITAL AND LABOR, EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEES PARTNERSHIP ADVANTAGES:  PARTNERSHIP ADVANTAGES PARTNERS HAVE ELASTIC LABOR COSTS THUS GREATER PRICING FLEXIBILITY PARTNERS OPTIMIZE THE INTERESTS OF THE WHOLE ENTERPRISE, NOT THE JOB BETTER TEAM SPIRIT, TEAMWORK MORE WILLINGNESS TO REDUCE WASTE BETTER CUSTOMER FOCUS TERMS OF MEMBERSHIP AND COMPENSATION:  TERMS OF MEMBERSHIP AND COMPENSATION EMPLOYEE IS A MEMBER OF THE FIRM, NOT A HIRELING PAY THE PERSON NOT THE JOB PROMOTE IN PAY GRADE NOT IN JOB TITLE PARTNERS RISE IN PAY GRADE AS THEY RISE IN EXPERIENCE DIMENSIONS OF EXPERIENCE:  DIMENSIONS OF EXPERIENCE LENGTH OF TIME SERVED BREADTH OF SKILLS DEPTH OF SKILLS WEIGHTS DEPEND ON THE FIRM CROSS TRAINING IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE MEASURES WHERE POSSIBLE DEPLOYMENT FLEXIBILITY:  DEPLOYMENT FLEXIBILITY ABILITY DETERMINES WHO DOES WHAT. JOB ROTATION EASIER CROSS TRAINING REVEALS ABILITY TRANSFERS DO NOT IMPLY DEMOTIONS OR PROMOTIONS PROMOTION IS IN GRADE LABOR COSTS:  LABOR COSTS GIVEN FLEXIBLE LABOR COSTS, ANY RIVALRY WILL FORCE PRICE CUTS IN A DOWNTURN, EVEN AMONG OLIGOPOLISTS GIVEN RIGID WAGE COSTS, EVEN PERFECT COMPETITION WILL NOT FORCE PRICES DOWN ENOUGH TO AVOID UNEMPLOYMENT CYCLICAL PARTNERSHIPS:  CYCLICAL PARTNERSHIPS SKILL DILUTION AVOIDED ON THE UPTURN LOSS OF TRAINING INVESTMENT AVOIDED ON THE DOWN TURN RATIO OF OPERATIONS TO TRAINING TIME VARIES FLEXIBLE BONUSES REPLACE LAYOFFS PARTNERSHIP AS SHARK REPELLENT:  PARTNERSHIP AS SHARK REPELLENT UNFRIENDLY TAKE-OVERS BUY STOCK TO TAKE CONTROL OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS PARTNERS SHARE BOARD WITH STOCKHOLDERS SHARKS FROZEN OUT CHAPTER NINE:  CHAPTER NINE TRANSITION TO PARTNERSHIP FIRST STEPS:  FIRST STEPS DETACH PAY GRADES FROM JOB CONTENT IMPLEMENT EXPERIENCE BASED PROMOTION PLAN ADJUST TOP MANAGEMENT PAY IF OUT OF LINE REPLACE HIGH SALARIES WITH STOCK PARTNER BONUS RISES OR FALLS WITH PARTNERSHIP PERFORMANCE THE CRUNCH ISSUE:  THE CRUNCH ISSUE WAGE CUTS TO BE ELIGIBLE FOR AN UNCAPPED BONUS? THE INFLATION OPTION EARNINGS FLEXIBILITY AS THE MAJOR PRECONDITION FOR EMPLOYMENT STABILITY BASE TO BONUS RATIO OTHER ISSUES:  OTHER ISSUES WHO IS ELIGIBLE? UNIONS NEGOTIATIONS ON DIVIDING THE PIE BOARD OF DIRECTORS WHY SHOULD STOCKHOLDERS SHARE POWER? THE TAX QUESTION CHAPTER TEN:  CHAPTER TEN THE POSTMODERN ECONOMY FULL EMPLOYMENT:  FULL EMPLOYMENT PARTNERSHIP FACILITATES SAY’S LAW IF COSTS ARE FLEXIBLE, PRICES WILL FALL EARNINGS DROP BUT EMPLOYMENT REMAINS STABLE CORPORATE LONGEVITY:  CORPORATE LONGEVITY PARTNERSHIPS MORE LIKELY TO INNOVATE TO AVOID EXTINCTION GREATER FLEXIBILITY LESS JOB DEFENSIVENESS GREATER COST RESILIENCE SOCIAL HARMONY:  SOCIAL HARMONY EVERYONE SHARES GOOD AND BAD TIMES INTEGRATED INTERESTS REDUCES ETHNIC DIVISIVENESS EASIER TO INTEGRATE DIVERSITY IN A PARTNERSHIP STABLE PRICES:  STABLE PRICES PARTNERSHIP AVOIDS SYSTEMATIC WAGE RATCHET DEACTIVATES WAGE/PRICE SPIRAL LESS WASTE WELFARE:  WELFARE CORPORATION TAKES OVER MUCH OF THE WELFARE NOW PAID FOR BY THE GOVERNMENT LESS NEED FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION LOWER TAXES FOREIGN COMPETITION:  FOREIGN COMPETITION PRICE FLEXIBILITY IMPROVES COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE QUICKER TO INNOVATE QUICKER TO RESPOND TO OTHER CHALLENGES LESS NEED FOR MANY POLICIES THAT WERE DRIVEN BY RIGID BUREAUCRACY POSTMODERN MANAGEMENT :  POSTMODERN MANAGEMENT AND THE NEW SCIENCE (Appendix) PROBLEMS WITH THE MECHANISTIC MODEL:  PROBLEMS WITH THE MECHANISTIC MODEL DEHUMANIZES PEOPLE INTO MACHINES OR COMMODITIES MAKES NO ROOM FOR IMMATERIAL ENTITIES SUCH AS ESPRIT DE CORPS DETERMINISTIC; ASSUMES A LINEAR ENVIRONOMENT IN A NONLINEAR WORLD OF TURBULENCE EMERGENCE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS:  EMERGENCE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS BLACK BOX RADIATION PROBLEM BOHR’S “EMPTY” ATOM THE WAVE/PARTICLE DUALITY HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE THE NEW REALITY; RELATIONSHIPS RATHER THAN “THINGS” NON LOCALITY CHAOS THEORY:  CHAOS THEORY NONLINEARITY = BUTTERFLY EFFECT = THE HORSESHOE NAIL EFFECT EXAMPLES FROM LIFE BOEING MICROSOFT WORLD WAR I RUSSIAN REVOLUTION MOST ACCIDENTS QUANTUM CONTROVERSIES:  QUANTUM CONTROVERSIES EINSTEIN’S OBJECTION: DOES GOD PLAY DICE? COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION OF NEILS BOHR: DON’T TELL GOD WHAT TO DO, ALBERT. MANY WORLDS INTERPRETATION THE POSTMODERN WORLDVIEW:  THE POSTMODERN WORLDVIEW FROM MECHANISTIC TO ORGANIC FROM REDUCTIONISM TO HOLISM FROM AN IMPERSONAL UNIVERSE TO A PARTICIIPATORY UNIVERSE FROM MATERIALISM TO SPIRITUAL REALITY FROM STARS TO TEAMS FROM BUREAUCRATIC CAPITALISM TO ORGANIC FREE ENTERPRISE

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