Poster+Project+Momentum Group FINAL

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Information about Poster+Project+Momentum Group FINAL
Education

Published on April 26, 2014

Author: frp5m

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: The overwhelming documentation of literature discusses two primary elements of concern regarding the use of bottled water: (a) safety for the consumer, and (b) the abuse of the environment. One thing that must be taken into account with the information that has been gathered is that we have become a consumption driven society and tend to purchase out of convenience. Method Discussion Water Canister vs. Disposable Water bottle Genevive Drews, Melissa Love, Daniella Russell & Paul Mikhail APU Graduate Psychology Students Chart #1 Convenience of Buying Bottled Water References Literature Review Results Participants We surveyed Graduate Students at APU studying any field, not specifically Clinical Psychology. The survey results reveal that graduate students at APU have a propensity to use water canisters and the majority contemplates the financial and environmental impacts of their decision. Ten questions were presented on the survey and the results illustrate a preference towards the use of refillable water canisters The prediction for the amount of students who used canisters over bottled water was slightly different from what the group had expected. The group predicted that equivalence would occur between a student’s preference and use of a water bottle and water canister. The results of the study revealed that a slightly higher number of students used water canisters. Audet, E., Auger, X., Cross, M., Pepo, M. (2012). Think Outside the Bottle Campaign at WPI. Retrieved from http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-121312-160551/unrestricted/CAI_Final_Report_2012.pdf Use of free canister on campus PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review The overwhelming documentation of literature discusses two primary elements of concern regarding the use of bottled water: (a) safety for the consumer , and (b) the abuse of the environment. One finding: we have become a consumption driven society and tend to purchase out of convenience. Reality: People will purchase bottles of water as a healthy alternative to soda when they are in public and socializing. The impact of health being considered when purchasing a beverage could explain the continuing rise of the sale of water bottles in the United States, since the 2008 economic downturn (Fishman, 2012). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. There is a trend on college campuses and in some city governments that shows a shifting away from the sale or use of disposable plastic water bottles to use of tap water or filtered tap water. In particular, the City of San Francisco does not allow bottled water to be purchased any longer using city funds, nor can bottled water be used for meetings. Other cities are following suit simply because of the mountains of trash that are produced from the waste of water bottles that are discarded and not recycled (Cannata, 2008; Knopper, 2008). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. They estimate that only two out of 10 plastic water bottles that have been used end up being recycled. When water bottles drift from landfills to streams and eventually out to the ocean, there are bits of plastic debris, approximately the size of the state of Texas forming in the center of the Pacific Ocean (Daniels, 2013; Knopper, 2008). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. Regulations of Bottled water Vs. Tap water Interestingly, groups like the International Bottled Water Association, IBWA, have argued that bottled water is better than tap water . The reality is that bottled water is really just filtered tap water from the local area (Daniels, 2013; Knopper , 2008). While the FDA does regulate bottled water, the EPA regulations are much stricter for tap water. The regulations for bottled water are “concerning chemical, physical, microbial and radiological contaminates. Regulations require that the water be processed, bottled, and transported under safe conditions, and properly labeled” (Daniels, 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. In addition to this, the FDA states that the bottled water must be able to meet the standards of the FDA when tested in their own labs. However, once a bottled water company establishes a positive record of production, they will then be tested less frequently allowing for more contaminates to make their way to the recipient. The water quality is checked less frequently than the EPA requires of municipal or tap water. Also, the results for the quality of a regional tap water and results of testing are available to residents of the community. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1977 requires that any contamination to local water sources must be communicated via various forms of media to the consumers in the area. However , this is not required of bottled water companies that have lead people to believe that bottled water really is safer than tap water (Daniels, 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. Despite the effort of water bottling companies in reducing the amount of plastic used to make bottles, the ability to reuse this plastic diminishes. The bottles are made from resins, which come from petroleum and natural gasses. STATS The United States alone goes through 15 million barrels of oil just for the production of plastic water bottles. As many are looking to reduce the carbon footprint that is being left by companies and individuals, this must be included in the conversation. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. Health risk: As the resin is being processed, it releases carcinogenic vapors into the air. The cancer reproductive risks that have been associated with the processing of water bottles, and the leaching of chemicals in plastic water bottles to the water that it holds, have begun to take a larger portion of the conversation of whether or not disposable water bottles should be used versus the refillable water canisters (Daniels, 2013; Knopper , 2008; Wagner, Schlusener , Ternes & Oehlmann , 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. The introduction of filtered water stations throughout the campus: The introduction of filtered water stations throughout the campus that provide free water bottle refilling stations has become an increasingly popular trend on college campuses . While disposable water bottles can also be refilled at these stations, it should be noted that they are not created to be washed out and reused. Another factor is that they could start to grow bacteria after a period of time, because they are not able to be fully cleaned and sanitized. There are concerns that the extreme heat needed to clean the bottles will further release chemicals into the water that may be absorbed in the future (Daniels, 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. Other valuable experiences : There are colleges across the United States that have introduced these water bottle filling stations based upon student demand. This can include giving free refillable water canisters to all of the students, staff, and faculty on the college campus for use at the stations . Some campuses have gone so far as to discontinue selling disposable water bottles on their college campuses, or have negotiated with their soda distributors to exclude plastic water bottles in vending machines ( Audet , Auger, Cross & Pepo , 2012; Cannata , 2008; Daniels, 2013; Kim, 2012; Petkewich , 2012). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. Each initiative began as a tentative plan to determine if the water filling stations or kiosks would be received by the campus communities, and if they would be effective cost wise and for the environment . Review of these plans has shown that there has been an increased elimination of using and selling disposable plastic water bottles on college campuses, because of the negative data on the health effects and the environmental impact. While the construction and implementation of the water bottle filling stations and filtration maintenance has cost colleges financially in the front end, they have discovered that they are saving money in the range of thousands of dollars per year (Daniels, 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review cont. While the construction and implementation of the water bottle filling stations and filtration maintenance has cost colleges financially in the front end, they have discovered that they are saving money in the range of thousands of dollars per year (Daniels, 2013). PowerPoint Presentation: Method Participants We surveyed Graduate Students at APU studying any field, not specifically Clinical Psychology. Materials We collaborated on the Sakai Group Section in Forums to identify “safe topics” as well as our target group. Once our topic was chosen, we utilized the Sakai Course Web Page to formulate questions for our survey. Once the questions were finalized, we used email to submit our survey to the OIRA for approval and recommendation. After approval was given for our survey, we set up a survey in SurveyMonkey to send out to the participants of our survey. We also located online journals and news sources to locate information that would provide information about our survey topic. PowerPoint Presentation: Method Procedure We identified our topic and our prediction of what would be our survey results. We divided the task among each member to locate three sources of literature for our literature review, and summarized these articles. We created a listing of survey questions, consolidated the questions, and then we submitted them to OIRA for review. It was suggested that we make a few modifications to our survey questions, and so we did. Once we received approval of our survey questions and the header from OIRA, we created a survey on SurveyMonkey for our group. One group member created the survey for us to access and review, and emailed each of us the login information. We were each able to view the results of the survey as well as determine how many responses we had received. We each identified a small number of people who had fit our criteria and asked them personally if they would be willing to participate in our survey. If we received their approval, they were sent a link to the SurveyMonkey survey with an agreed upon disclaimer. PowerPoint Presentation: Results Results The survey results reveal that graduate students at APU have a propensity to use water canisters and the majority contemplates the financial and environmental impacts of their decision. Ten questions were presented on the survey and the results illustrate a preference towards the use of refillable water canisters. Overall, the results of the study revealed that graduate students at APU preferred to use water canisters. It also seems that those who did not use water canisters did so due to inconvenience. Additionally, the survey revealed that if water stations were around campus, 53% of students would use them. Students seem to be aware of the financial and environmental impacts of their decisions and as a result make decisions to use water canisters. PowerPoint Presentation: Figure 1.2 PowerPoint Presentation: Figure 1.2 If a Free Canister is provided on campus, I would use it. Figure 1.2 is a pie chart that illustrates the results of question number one: If you were given a free APU water canister, would you use this refillable canister on campus? The results of the survey revealed that 52.94% of APU graduate students strongly agree, 29.41% agree, 5.88% neither agree nor disagree, 0% disagrees, and 11.76% strongly disagree. These findings reveal that the majority of students would use the canister if it were provided. PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #2 I like the Convenience of purchasing bottled water from vending Machine. Make sure that there is a direct reference to this chart in your Results section. PowerPoint Presentation: Chart # 3 I would use free water bottle on campus if available Make sure that there is a direct reference to this chart in your Results section. PowerPoint Presentation: Figure 1.3 Cost Effectiveness of the use of Canister Vs. Disposable bottled water Figure 1.3 : Cost Effectiveness of the use of Canister Vs. Disposable bottled water Figure 1.3 The results were that 76.47% of graduate students at APU believe that the use of a water canister is a more cost effective choice. The remaining 17.65% of those participants who provided an answer disagreed PowerPoint Presentation: Chart # 3 PowerPoint Presentation: Table Water Canister Vs. Disposable water Bottle PowerPoint Presentation: Table Qualitative Questions : Qualitative Questions The two qualitative question results described in detail the reasons for the participants’ choice to either use refillable canisters or water bottles. Five participants had skipped survey question number 7 as follows; Please provide explanations here that would help us understand your answers above. The answers varied greatly and included references to convenience, money, environment, and taste. The majority of answers included an acknowledgement of the environmental benefits of the use of water canisters. Qualitative Questions : Qualitative Questions The second qualitative question had eight participants that skipped question number nine; If you do not use refillable water canisters, please explain why? This question was answered in a variety of ways. The most common answers included a reference to the convenience of water bottles, while some were unaware of the environmental impacts. Qualitative Questions : Qualitative Questions However, the majority of responses indicated that the participants had used water canisters. The qualitative answers to the survey questions described their perspectives of water canisters versus the use of water bottles. Throughout the survey, participants who had used water canisters made up the majority. Their reasons for using these canisters varied, however the majority had used these canisters for environmental and financial benefits. Based on the results, it seems the majority of those who did not use water canisters stated that convenience had been the main reason. Discussion : Discussion The prediction for the amount of students who used canisters over bottled water was slightly different from what the group had expected. The group predicted that equivalence would occur between a student’s preference and use of a water bottle and water canister. The results of the study revealed that a slightly higher number of students used water canisters. The reasons for their use of water canisters were more varied than we had predicted. Discussion : Discussion Many of the research articles that were used within our study revealed the environmental impacts of the use of water canisters, and this was also a main concern and reason for the participants’ choice. Financial considerations had also been a primary reason for the decision to use water canisters. Discussion : Discussion The study was conducted among 17 APU graduate students who answered 10 survey questions. There were two qualitative and eight quantitative questions in the survey regarding a preference for water canisters or water bottles. The participants were contacted by email with a request for their participation. Once they agreed, a follow up email was sent containing a link and instruction on how to access the survey. A link to the survey was sent to the participants and they were able to log on and complete the survey. The survey was accessed through surveymonkey.com . The survey consisted of questions regarding their use and preference of disposable water bottles and reusable water canisters. Survey questions were created with consideration to not imply researcher preference or bias. Discussion : Discussion The results of the data is relevant to graduate students and universities due to the high number of students willing to use water canisters. If schools were able to provide water stations for students the may also save money on waste management. This may lower over all cost for universities and could potentially lower tuition. Although this effect is speculative the effects of reducing waste are realistic, as students would not have a need to purchase water bottles on campus. Discussion : Discussion Further research in this field would provide students with alternatives to using water bottles, which have great financial, environmental, and health impacts. The continued increasing awareness of these impacts would help students make decisions that enhanced their quality of life. Additional research may include a test run of the cost and environmental impacts of water filling stations at more local universities. PowerPoint Presentation: References Insert your References here. Text must be at least 20 point Arial font Entire Reference section will not fit on one page , so cut and paste so that it fits “ smoothly ” over multiple pages Single space, 20 point Arial font, but otherwise use APA formatting for this section NOTE : You are welcome to add acknowledgments , pictures, etc., at the end of your presentation. PowerPoint Presentation: Wagner, M., Schlusener , M. Ternes , T., Oehlmann , J. (2013). Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonist in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Retrieved from http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov / pmc /articles/PMC3756062/

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