Published on March 6, 2014
Possible Flood Adaptation Strategies for Catskill, NY Catskill Waterfront Flooding Task Force February 27, 2014 Based on Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies by NYC Dept. of City Planning
Factors to Consider Scale - parcel, reach, community Timeframe - short (<2yrs), mid (2-10yrs), long (>10yrs) Technical/regulatory feasibility - known, unknown Environmental impact - positive, neutral, negative Residual Risk >100 year storm – high, low
Dry Floodproofing What: Using water-tight materials to resist water during temporary submersion Applicability: Buildings with water-resistant walls and foundations in areas likely to experience only low level stillwater flooding Example: Flood shield on commercial building
Dry Floodproofing Factor Score Notes Parcel Short-term Known Neutral High Other FEMA encourages floodproofing
Wet Floodproofing What: Structure designed or retrofitted to allow water to flow through with minimal to no damage Applicability: Buildings with floodable or portable first floor use, e.g., storage and parking spaces Example: Steelhouse Restaurant and Clearwater Home Port, Kingston, NY
Wet Floodproofing Factor Score Notes Parcel Short-term Known Neutral High Other FEMA encourages floodproofing
Protect/elevate building systems What: Utilities relocated above flood elevation Applicability: Structures with flexibility for utility location Example: Elevated air conditioner and basement systems
Protect/elevate building systems Factor Score Notes Parcel Short-term Known FEMA encourages floodproofing Neutral High Other Relatively inexpensive
Elevate on piles What: Raise a new or existing structure on piles or columns to reduce risk of wave action and flooding Applicability: Detached, low-rise structures Example: New Paltz, NY and New Orleans, LA
Elevate on piles Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach Short-term Known FEMA encourages elevation Neutral High Other Allows use to continue in near-term
Elevate on Fill What: Structure raised on fill above flood elevation Applicability: Parcel with enough space for elevation and access Example: Piermont condominiums
Elevate on Fill Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach Mid to Long-term Expensive Known Challenging to permit in floodway Negative to neutral Can affect habitat in shoreline areas and movement of water in floodway High Other Can affect neighboring properties
violate municipal height restrictions and undermines historic preservation. And in extreme ood events, the increased elevation height may not be suf cient and the building may still be ooded. Amphibious foundations are a cost-effective, residentfriendly alternative to permanent static elevation in areas where ood waters are not accompanied by large waves or high velocity currents. Amphibious systems are distinct from oating houses in that they retain a home’s relationship to the ground by resting close to the earth most of the time, but oating as high as necessary whenever ooding occurs. An amphibious system consists of buoyancy elements to provide otation, a vertical guidance system to limit lateral movement, some accommodation for utility connections and a provision to keep water-borne debris from settling under the house. As such, it provides temporary elevation as needed, when needed, and does so by working in synchrony with oodwater rather than resisting it. unique character of these neighbourhoods. Amphibious Structures These basic components of an amphibious house form a system that can be adapted to respond to the unique challenges of diverse locations. The nature and duration of the ooding, local housing types, neighbourhood fabric, local climate and economics, and whether for retro t or new construction are all factors that in uence the design of an amphibious system. While clearly there is no universal design solution, the regional variations of amphibious architecture ensure that communities around the world are able to meet the challenges brought on by future storms and impending climate change. FL DING A TERISTICS COAST RIVER NON WAVE ZONE WAVE ZONE COLD CLIMATE WARM CLIMATE SALT WATER FRESH WATER NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA A existing house new steel channel reinforcement for sill beam existing sill beam steel double-angle ``T `` beam secondary steel framing diagonal bracing telescoping vertical guidance post coated EPS buoyancy block existing pier sleeve for vertical guidance post
Amphibious Structures Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown New technologies emerging (i.e. retrofit) Negative to Neutral May affect shoreline habitat quality Medium to High Other Requires attention to long term access and infrastructure, may not meet insurance standards
Floating Structures What: Structure built to float on the water at all times Applicability: Waterfront areas with lower risk of high energy wave action Example: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Floating Structures Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown New technologies emerging Negative to Neutral May affect shoreline habitat quality Medium to High Other Requires elevated or floating access and infrastructure
Elevation of land and streets What: Elevating land and/or streets to bring structures above flood elevation Applicability: Low-lying areas undergoing redevelopment/new infrastructure Example: Overdiepse Polder, Netherlands
Elevation of land and streets Factor Score Notes Reach Mid-term Significant investment Known Negative or neutral High Other May have shoreline habitat impacts
Waterfront parks and open space What: Open spaces designed to buffer and potentially hold floodwater on site Applicability: Areas suitable for parks and open space Example: Riverwalk Park, Tarrytown and Iona Marsh
Waterfront parks and open space Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach Short-term Known Positive Habitat, water quality and stormwater benefits, if done carefully Low Other Allows for public access and recreational uses
Deployable Floodwalls What: Deployable walls that prevent floodwaters from passing Applicability: Sheltered areas with low wave action Example: Kampen, Netherlands
Deployable Floodwalls Factor Score Notes Reach Short to Mid-term Known Neutral High Other Failure and overtopping
Strategic relocation What: Relocating existing or limiting new development in the highest risk areas Applicability: Areas of low development and/or highest vulnerability Example: Toronto, Canada and Staten Island, NY
Strategic Relocation Factor Score Notes Parcel, Reach, Community Mid to Long-term Can be politically challenging Known Positive Low Other Provides for shoreline habitat and wetland migration Greatest reduction in long-term risk May require available upland sites for relocation of uses
Revetments What: Stone rubble or concrete block structures that dissipate wave energy and prevent shoreline erosion Applicability: Sloped shorelines that require erosion protection but don’t require deep water access. Vegetation can be added. Example: Hudson River
Revetments Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-Term Known Negative to Neutral Can have some ecological value with plantings High Other Along much of Hudson River Primary function is erosion control Height adaptable. Must be combined with other features to reduce flood risk
Engineered EcologicallyEnhanced Shorelines What: Shoreline treatment that provides erosion control, bank stabilization and ecological value using natural features Applicability: Shorelines with low wave action and slope Example: OPRHP boat launch in Coxsackie
Engineered EcologicallyEnhanced Shorelines Factor Score Notes Reach Mid-term Known Neutral to Positive Can improve shoreline habitat value High Other New technologies emerging Primary function is erosion control Height adaptable, must be combined with other measures to reduce flood risk
Bulkheads What: Vertical walls that stabilize the shoreline, prevent erosion and protect from low level flooding and wave action. Applicability: Limited space, deep water access, existing hard shorelines, and working waterfronts Example: Hudson River, Town of Lloyd
Bulkheads Factor Score Notes Reach Mid-term Known Negative Very limited habitat value High Other Currently along Hudson Failure and overtopping ~30 year lifespan, required for deep water access
Seawalls What: Massive stone, rock or concrete walls built on the shoreline to resist wave action and flooding. Applicability: Highly vulnerable developed areas Example: Manhattan
Seawalls Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown Negative High Other Very limited habitat value Failure and overtopping ~30 year lifespan, access and view of waterfront impacted
Levees/Dikes What: Earthen embankments at shoreline that protect large areas from flooding Applicability: Areas with valuable assets and access to wide swath of shoreland for levee Example: New Orleans, LA and Waal River, Netherlands
Levees/Dikes Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown May be challenging to permit Negative to Neutral Depends on shoreline design High Other Significant investment Failure and overtopping
Constructed Wetlands What: New or restored tidal wetland that dissipates wave action and creates habitat Applicability: Low-lying coastal areas Example: Jamaica Bay, Queens
Constructed Wetlands Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown Neutral to Positive Can improve coastal habitat High Other New technologies emerging Not designed to reduce flood elevation Must be combined with other measures to reduce flood risk
Breakwaters Artificial Reefs What: Offshore structures that reduce wave action Applicability: Areas with shallow water and strong foundation soils Example: Brooklyn and Rondout Harbor, Kingston
Breakwaters Artificial Reefs Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown Neutral to Positive Some designs may enhance habitat High Other May be challenging to permit Not designed to reduce flood elevation Must be combined with other measures to reduce flood risk
Floating Islands What: Planted mats or structures that reduce wave action and can restore habitat and improve water quality Applicability: Sheltered, shallow coastal areas with low wave energy Example: Isle de Jean Charles, LA
Floating Islands Factor Score Notes Reach Mid to Long-term Unknown May be challenging to permit Unknown High Other Not designed to reduce flood elevation Must be combined with other measures to reduce flood risk Risk breaking loose in high wave action
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