Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

25 %
75 %
Information about Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness
Health & Medicine

Published on March 17, 2014

Author: dnowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

David D Nowell PhD www.DrNowell.com

www.DrNowell.com DavidNowell DavidNowellSeminars

Overview • What is Positive Psychology? • Why happiness? • 11 happiness activities • Supporting resilience • Maximizing your brain’s built-in hard-wired reward-and-planning system • Preferred States Inventory: Identifying your unique motivational blueprint

Appendix J

WHAT IS POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY?

Is there a “negative psychology”?

• Anger: 5,584 • Anxiety: 41,416 • Depression: 54,040 • Joy: 415 • Happiness: 1,710 • Life satisfaction: 2,582

Happiness Appendix A /B

Happiness • Pleasure, happiness, contentment? – Evans, 2008 • Love of life – Abdel-Khalek, 2007

Happiness • Hedonia and eudamonia

Happiness • Hedonia and eudamonia – the better course of action is not always the one that satisfies the current desire or even an abiding desire.

Key findings

Kraft & Pressman, 2012

WHY HAPPINESS?

Happier people… • Are half as likely to die • Half as likely to be disabled • Live longer than average • Have better health habits • Have lower blood pressure • Have more robust immune systems • Are more productive on the job • Have higher incomes • Are able to tolerate more pain

“I feel uneasy about the company I’m with…religionists, philosophers, yearners, utopia ns, Pollyannas, rather than the tough-minded scientists I admire so much more.”

Feeling good Functioning well

Feeling good Functioning well

Feeling good Functioning well

Feeling good Functioning well

“PERMA” Positive emotions Engagement / flow Relationships

“bad is stronger than good” (Baumeister et al, 2001)

Framingham Heart Study “…happiness, like health, is a collective phenomenon.”

Gilbert et al, 2009 • interview someone who has attained your goal

Is there a happiness “set point”?

Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)

Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)

Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)

Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)

Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)

• Fujita & Diener, 2005 – 24% of sample changed significantly over time

11 HAPPINESS ACTIVITIES

Building on Strengths www.viacharacter.org

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

Applying strengths in counseling • Seligman et al, 2005

“Strengths” and “talents”

• Energizes you • Feels like the “real you” • Leads to peak performance

• Most common across cultures – kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude, and open-mindedness • Most associated with well-being in US and Swiss sample – love, hope, curiosity, zest, and gratitude Peterson & Park, 2009

Journaling • Trauma • Physical rehabilitation • Romantic breakup

Journaling Mankad et al, 2009

Journaling Lewandowski, G. (2009).

gratitude x Gratitude

The Gratitude Exercise At the end of each day, after dinner and before going to sleep, write down three things that went well during the day. Do this every night for a week. The three things you list can be relatively small or large in importance. After each positive event on your list, answer in your own words the question: “Why did this good thing happen?” Seligman et al (2005)

Koo & Algoe (2008)

Byrd-Craven, J., Geary, D. C., Rose, A. J., & Ponzi, D. (2008). “Co-ruminating increase stress hormone levels in women”

gratitude x Savouring • relishing • cherishing • treasuring • reveling • basking • luxuriating • marveling • delighting • revering

gratitude x How to savour • slow down • pay attention • use all your senses • stretch out the experience • reflect on your enjoyment

Flow Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Flow

Flow

Flow

Flow

Flow

• Cultural context – Moneta, 2004 Japanese subjects

• Cultural context – Moneta, 2004 Chinese subjects

Applications of Flow

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

Trackyourhappiness.org

“not exercising is like taking depressants” – Tal Ben-Shahar

Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities

Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities

Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities

• Effective antidepressant benefits among older adults – Blumenthal et al, 1999 – Alfermann & Stoll, 2000 – McAuley, 2010 • And among children – Biddle & Asare, 2011

• Higher “dose”? – Courneya et al, 2014 • Add-on strategy for treating depression? – Mura et al, 2014

• Resistance to colds – Montagne, 2010 • Improved sleep – Reid et al, 2010 • Improved heart rate variability (HRV) – Segerstrom et al, 2011

Optimism • Hope • Self-efficacy • Goal-setting

what IS vs. what COULD BE 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 128 Appendix G

what IS… 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 129

…what COULD BE 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 130

• Hope –Pathways thoughts – what causes what –Agency thoughts – who causes what Appendix C / D

• Hope –Academics –Athletics –Physical health –Social connection

• Accentuating Hope –Pathways thoughts • Break big goal into steps • Concentrate on 1st subgoal • Mentally rehearse; how will you handle roadblock? • Who do you know, who can you get to know, to give you advice? • What new skills will you need to learn to reach your goal?

• Accentuating Hope –Pathways thoughts –Agency thoughts • Recognize that YOU have chosen the goal • Practice self-talk • Recall your successes • Ask yourself “how am I doing”? Check in. • Be clear on the “why” of your goals.

Self-efficacy

• Hank: “I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things actually get better. ”

The Self-esteem Abacus

Goal-setting Appendix H

• High school students and leisure – Erickson & Compton, 1982 – Glancy, Willits, and Farrell, 1986 • Vacation satisfaction – Nawijn, Marchand, Veenhoven, & Vingerhoets, 2010 • Older adults and life satisfaction – Heo, Lee, McCormick, & Pedersen, 2010

How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year

How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year In 2012: 1654

How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year In 2012: 1654 (1728 for Australians)

Ilona Bonniwell

www.TheTimeParadox.com click “surveys”

Relationships "By far the greatest predictor of happiness in the literature is intimate relationships" – Sonja Lyubomirsky

Rilling et al, 2012

Appendix J

Gable & Reis, 2010

the challenge of a “but-free day”

Fiese et al, 2002

Lyubomirsky, S., et al, 2005

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

Kindness Appendix J

Forgiveness • Decisional forgiveness • Emotional forgiveness • Expressing forgiveness • Restoration – Worthington, 2003

Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship? Appendix E

Religion, Meaning and Depth

Alain de Botton

Abdel-Khalek, 2007

Abdel-Khalek, 2007

Abdel-Khalek, 2007

10% 100 % $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 High self-esteem Feeling happy Others’ approval Getting along well with others 21 “life bucks”

10% 100 % $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 High self-esteem Feeling happy Others’ approval Getting along well with others 21 “life bucks”

11 Happiness activities • Use your strengths • Journaling • Gratitude • Savouring • Flow • Physical exercise • Optimism and hope • Relationships • Kindness • Forgiveness • Meaning

“replicability of results”

SUPPORTING RESILIENCE

“Positive developmental outcomes despite adverse experiences” • Assets / risks • Protective processes / vulnerabilities •Competence / adversity

Three Keys to Family Resilience • Family belief systems • Organizational patterns • Communication processes Walsh (2006)

Family Belief Systems • Making meaning of adversity • Positive outlook • Transcendence and spirituality

Organizational Patterns • Flexibility • Connectedness/Cohesion • Social and economic resources

Communication Processes • Clarity • Open emotional expression • Collaborative problem solving

Resilience and Culture

Resilience “Resilience is often the most commonly observed outcome trajectory following exposure to a potentially traumatic event.” (Bonanno 2005)

Positive outcome after spinal cord injury • living a normal life, just doing things differently • overcoming challenges: determination to succeed • using the resources available to me

Post-traumatic Growth

Post-traumatic Growth Inventory I established a new path for my life. I know better that I can handle difficulties. I changed my priorities about what is important in life. New opportunities are available which wouldn't have been otherwise. I have more compassion for others. I discovered that I'm stronger than I thought I was. I have a greater sense of closeness with others. Tedeschi & Calhoun (1996)

• Strategies • Strengths • Resources • Insights

Neuroplasticity

“NeuroMalleability” 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 216

• Physical Exercise • Novel Learning Experience • Sleep • Nutrition • Stress Management / Meditation

UNDERSTANDING YOUR BRAIN’S REWARD-AND-PLANNING SYSTEM

What’s your “one thing”? Appendix F

Image: wikimedia commons

Cortico-striatal loop

Cortico-striatal loop

The reward-and-planning system

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions

Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Dante: “My biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”

Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Inna: “I just get blank. I usually start sitting more slouched, hold my head with my left hand, ….you freeze and instead of being able to think of alternatives, you start thinking to yourself that you cannot find a logical answer and you are tempted to avoid it as if it poses a threat somehow to you.”

Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Hank: “I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things actually get better. ”

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State

We don’t do anything we’re not motivated to do

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State OBSTACLES • Insight • Disconnect from values • Diminished options • Overly influenced by externals • Too busy with current activity

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State STRATEGIES • Identify the goal-behind-the- goal (what do you want to feel?) • Letter from the future

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks

The reward-and-planning system Identify Tasks OBSTACLES • Working memory • Understanding cause- effect • Self-efficacy • Role models

The reward-and-planning system Identify Tasks STRATEGIES • Coaching • Interview someone who’s already done it • Vocational counseling

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve

Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Dante: “My biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”

The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve OBSTACLES • Working memory • Self-efficacy • Learned helplessness

The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve STRATEGIES • Coaching • Mind-mapping software / apps • Review your successes and strengths: What evidence do you have that you CAN do this? • Psychotherapy

easy hard 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 248

The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve STRATEGIES • Coaching • Mind-mapping software / apps • Review your successes and strengths: What evidence do you have that you CAN do this? • Psychotherapy

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions

The reward-and-planning system Block Distractions OBSTACLES • Field dependent (sensitive to novelty) • Difficulty determining saliency • Working memory • Easily discouraged

The reward-and-planning system Block Distractions STRATEGIES • The Body Double • Pomodoro Technique • StayOnTask app • Increase salience (what’s in it for me?)

Increase salience

StayOnTask app

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State OBSTACLES • Picked wrong task • Picked wrong goal (“state”)

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State STRATEGIES • Maintain boundaries • Ask “what about this do I want?” • Get clear about your unique motivational blueprint.

Oppositional-defiant disorder as a learning disorder

The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions

PREFERRED STATES INVENTORY Identifying Your Motivational Blueprint

Dopamine is the neurotransmitter of: • Reward • Motivation • Woo hoo! • Yay! • Happy • Success • Pride • Orgullo • Stoltz

What does dopamine feeeel like?

Quick: Name one thing your child is crazy about

3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 272

Quick: Name one thing you are crazy about

3/16/2014 278

3/16/2014 Nummenma et al 2014 279

3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 280

Peak experiences

• Looking at old pictures. • My mother FINALLY getting on the Internet! • Being somebody important in someone else’s life. • Realizing you have done the right thing no matter how badly it hurts. • Finishing an article or writing project. • Paddling out at the crack of dawn with no one around. • Going to your girlfriends play and turning to your friend to say, "That's my girl." • The comfortable silence between the closest of friends. • Rising before sunrise to ride horses.

• Soft pajamas. • Kissing your boyfriend for the first time. • The sound of natural running water. • Watching your kids sleep (finally) after a long day. • Smelling rain. • Checking something off your to-do list. • Thinking of an ex- and smiling without being sad. • Learning how to change a tire all by yourself. • Finding a $5 bill in an old jacket pocket. • Having the car packed to perfection, just waiting for you to get behind the wheel and go!

Preferred States Inventory Appendix G 1. Call to mind a “peak” moment – When was this? – Who was there? – Where were you? 2. Clarify sensory detail – What exactly did you see? – What were you hearing? – Was there texture? Temperature? – Were there smells?

Preferred States Inventory 3. Identify the highlight moment – What was the very best part of all that? If you had to choose just one moment? 4. Say hello to your body – What were you feeling, in your body, right in the middle of all that? – Where exactly – in your body – did you feel that? – What words would describe that feeling?

Preferred States Inventory Appendix G 1. Call to mind another “peak” moment – When was this? – Who was there? – Where were you? 2. Clarify sensory detail – What exactly did you see? – What were you hearing? – Was there texture? Temperature? – Were there smells?

Preferred States Inventory 3. Identify the highlight moment – What was the very best part of all that? If you had to choose just one moment? 4. Say hello to your body – What were you feeling, in your body, right in the middle of all that? – Where exactly – in your body – did you feel that? – What words would describe that feeling?

Preferred States Inventory • Walk through the 4 steps again, with other peak moments (mix it up - find big moments as well as smaller moments, and find experiences from last week as well as from 10 years ago) • After you’ve walked through 10 or 15 of your best moments, notice what patterns and themes show up for you • What do you like to feeeeel? In your body? What are your preferred states?

Overview • What is Positive Psychology? • Why happiness? • 11 happiness activities • Supporting resilience • Maximizing your brain’s built-in hard-wired reward-and-planning system • Preferred States Inventory: Identifying your unique motivational blueprint

UIGSNBLKADNQ “Until I got still, nobody but little kids and dogs noticed the beautiful quiet.” • Unique • Intention • Gratitude • Savoring • Nagging/open question • Best thing I hadn’t noticed yet Appendix I

UIGSNBLKADNQ “Until I got still, nobody but little kids and dogs noticed the beautiful quiet.” • Lighten the load (forgiveness) • Kindness • Audacious goal • Doubts? • New-self exercise • Quiet

www.slideshare.net/dnowell

Enough happiness to keep you sweet; Enough trials to keep you strong; Enough sorrow to keep you human; Enough hope to keep you happy; Enough failure to keep you humble; Enough success to keep you eager; Enough friends to give you comfort; Enough wealth to meet your needs; Enough faith to banish depression; Enough determination to make each day better than yesterday.

Let’s stay in touch! Join my e-newsletter list:  Fill out a card today and drop it in the box.  Sign up on my web site or Facebook page Visit on the web: www.DrNowell.com @davidnowell David Nowell Seminars David D Nowell PhD

addictions x

Eating disorders Where are you when you are eating?

Hope comes from believing your efforts can make a difference Carol Dweck and colleagues gave children a fairly simple puzzle and told half the kids a comment that told them they were smart and the other half that they must have worked hard to solve the puzzles. Then they offered them a choice of simple or challenging puzzles. 90% of the kids who were praised for effort chose the difficult puzzles; a majority of the kids who were praised for intelligence chose the easier ones. Then all the kids were given some difficult puzzles. Then some that were about as easy as the initial ones. The “work hard” kids did 30% better than they had in the initial scores, while the “intelligence” kids scores declined by 20%. A. Cimpian et. al (2007). “Subtle Linguistic Clues Affect Children’s motivations,” Psychological Science, 18:314-316.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness ...

... and leave with specific positive psychology practical strategies for connecting the brain-based science of happiness ... of Sustained Happiness: ...
Read more

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness ...

... and-the-science-of-sustained-happiness ... Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness ... Happiness? Using Positive Psychology to ...
Read more

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness ...

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness: Evidence-Based Strategies to Get Best Client Outcomes Fast Learning Objectives: • State the ...
Read more

The Science of Happiness: Achieving Sustained ... - Vetlife

POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ... The science of happiness: achieving sustained psychological wellbeing ... a new field of science, little was known about the ...
Read more

Wiley: TED Studies: Psychology - Understanding Happiness

... Psychology - Understanding Happiness. ... This "new science of happiness" based on brain research ... Positive psychology - 3 forms of happiness and ...
Read more

Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness. Bridging Ivory Tower and Main Street The objective of positive psychology is to unite the rigor of academic.
Read more

Positive psychology - Wikipedia

The findings of positive psychology indicate that happiness ... “further the science of positive psychology ... Second wave positive psychology; Positive ...
Read more

Positive Psychology Center

Positive Psychology is the ... International Positive Education Network; Researcher Database; Authentic Happiness Website; All News. NEWSFEED FROM ...
Read more

Reference: Boehm, J. K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (in press ...

1 Reference: Boehm, J. K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (in press). The promise of sustainable happiness. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology (2nd
Read more