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Published on January 6, 2009

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Promoting Positive Development in School-Aged Children: Strategies for Successful Prevention : Promoting Positive Development in School-Aged Children: Strategies for Successful Prevention Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Ph.D. Dept. of Educational & Counselling Psychology, & Special Education University of British Columbia kimberly.schonert-reichl@ubc.ca United Way Presentation February 12, 2004 Overview : Overview Why should we be concerned? What works in prevention? What are the essential ingredients for fostering children’s social-emotional competence? Examples from recent research in Vancouver. Suggestions for fostering school-aged children’s social, emotional, moral, and academic success (suggested readings and websites). Why should we be concerned? : Why should we be concerned? There is a growing concern about children’s and adolescents’ social-emotional adjustment and mental health: Approximately 1 in 5 (20%) identified with mental health problems. Boys more likely to be identified with “externalizing problems” (e.g., conduct disorders, aggression), Girls more likely to be identified with internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety) 75% - 80% of children and youth do not receive the services they need. Why should we be concerned . . .? : Why should we be concerned . . .? Childhood aggression is one particular type of problem that has been gaining increasing attention as a target for prevention/intervention efforts (Institute of Medicine, 1994). Hymel et al. (2002) 10% - 12% of adolescents report being victimized weekly 8% - 10% report bullying peers Pepler & Craig (2001) 14% bullies, 5% victims Peers are present in 85% of bullying episodes on the playground and in class Why should we be concerned . . .? : Why should we be concerned . . .? Recent increase in the risks that children face in our society Social and economic changes have led to increases in number of children living in poverty. Loss of support from traditional neighborhoods and extended families. Reduced support and contact with positive adult role models. What do children need? : What do children need? Support-Children need to experience support, care, and love from their families, neighbors, and many others. They need organizations and institutions that provide positive, supportive environments. Empowerment-Children need to be valued by their community and have opportunities to contribute to others. For this to occur, they must be safe and feel secure.  Boundaries and expectations-Children need to know what is expected of them and whether activities and behaviors are "in bounds" and "out of bounds."  Constructive use of time-Children need constructive, enriching opportunities for growth through creative activities, youth programs The Importance of Fostering Social Emotional Competence : The Importance of Fostering Social Emotional Competence “Social emotional competence measures the ability to understand, process, manage, and express social and emotional aspects of our lives” (Cohen, 2001). Social and emotional learning refers to the process and methods used to promote social and emotional competence. What is Social and Emotional Learning? (www.casel.org) : What is Social and Emotional Learning? (www.casel.org) Self-Awareness: awareness of feelings and our own abilities; sense of self-confidence. Social Awareness: ability to take other’s perspectives; appreciating and interacting with diverse groups. Self-Management: being able to regulate one’s own emotions; conscientious; perseverance. Relationship Skills: Establishing and maintaining healthy relationships; negotiating conflict; seeking help when needed. Responsible Decision-Making: Assessing risks and making good decisions; respecting others; taking personal responsibility for one’s decisions. The Importance of Fostering Social Emotional Competence : The Importance of Fostering Social Emotional Competence Social emotional literacy reduces violence and promotes prosocial behaviours (Schonert-Reichl, Smith, & Zaidman-Zait, 2002; Weissberg & Greenberg, 1998). Prosocial behaviours exhibited by students in the classroom are better predictors of academic achievement than are standardized test scores (Wentzel, 1993). Academic achievement in Grade 8 can be better predicted from knowing children’s grade 3 social emotional competence than from knowing children’s grade 3 academic achievement (Caprara et al., 2000). Context for Change : Context for Change Prevention programs that work use a framework that involves families, peers, schools, and communities as partners to target multiple outcomes. What is needed is a set of coordinated, collaborative strategies and programs in each community (Dryfoos, 1997). It is importance to recognize the multiple spheres of influence on children’s development. Urie Brofenbrenner’s Contextual Perspective:A child’s unique development cannot be viewed without seeing the child in social and cultural context : Urie Brofenbrenner’s Contextual Perspective:A child’s unique development cannot be viewed without seeing the child in social and cultural context Microsystem – everyday environment (e.g., homes, friends, caregivers) Mesosystem – connections between aspects of the microsystem (e.g., child to parent) Exosystem – encompasses social institutions (e.g., government, community, schools) Macrosystem – larger cultural influences (e.g., society in general, religious systems, political thought) Chronosystem – underlies all other systems (e.g., historical events and changes) What Works in Prevention?Weissberg, R. P., Kumpfer, K. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth, An introduction. American Psychologist, 58, 425-432. : What Works in Prevention?Weissberg, R. P., Kumpfer, K. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth, An introduction. American Psychologist, 58, 425-432. Uses a research-based risk and protective factor framework that involves families, peers, schools, and communities as partners to target multiple outcomes. Is long term, age-specific, and culturally appropriate. Fosters development of individuals who are healthy and fully engaged through teaching them to apply social-emotional skills and ethical values to daily life. What Works in Prevention?(cont’d) : What Works in Prevention?(cont’d) Aims to establish policies, institutional practices, and environmental supports that nurture optimal development. Selects, trains, and supports interpersonally skilled staff to implement programming effectively. Incorporates and adapts evidence-based programming to meet local community needs through strategic planning, ongoing evaluation, and continuous improvement. What are the Ingredients for Promoting Positive Development in School-Aged Children? : What are the Ingredients for Promoting Positive Development in School-Aged Children? A Developmental Approach A Strengths-Based approach The Creation of a “Caring Context” Attention to Implementation and Evaluation Ingredient 1: A Developmental Approach : Ingredient 1: A Developmental Approach Recognize the factors that influence students’ social –emotional development and behaviour. A knowledge of developmental theory is essential Stages of cognitive/social development Mechanisms/processes that promote development The importance of “scaffolding” – knowing where children are and where they can be Child centered Consider the student’s point of view Activities and lessons calibrated to children’s developmental level Developmental Tasks of Middle Childhood (Masten & Coatsworth, 1998) : Developmental Tasks of Middle Childhood (Masten & Coatsworth, 1998) School adjustment (attendance, appropriate conduct) Academic achievement (e.g., learning to read, do arithmetic) Getting along with peers (peer acceptance, making friends) Rule-governed conduct (following rules of society for moral behavior and prosocial conduct) Ingredient Two: The need for a Strengths-Based Approach : Ingredient Two: The need for a Strengths-Based Approach Recent years have witnessed a shift from a focus on risk to identifying factors that “protect” individuals and foster positive development. Resiliency -- “successful adaptation despite adversity”, or “overcoming the odds.” Resiliency Factors Individual characteristics Intelligence Personality (e.g., temperament, empathy, hope) Family and Peers (e.g., social support, cohesion) Schools (e.g., school belonging, “significant adult”) Shifting from a risk to a resiliency focus : Shifting from a risk to a resiliency focus Recent years have witnessed a shift from a focus on risk to identifying factors that “protect” individuals and foster positive development. “There is a regrettable tendency to focus gloomily on the ills of mankind and on all mankind and on all that can and does go wrong . . . The potential for prevention surely lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the reason why some children are not damaged by deprivation . . . “ (Rutter, 1979, p. 49). Fostering Competence: : Fostering Competence: “It is critical to the future of a society that its children become competent adults and productive citizens. Thus, society and parents are a stake in the development of competence and in understanding the processes that facilitate it and undermine it” (Masten & Coatsworth, 1998, p. 205) Defining Risk: Conceptual Issues : Defining Risk: Conceptual Issues There is an increasing popularity of the “at risk” concept The term is used in psychology, education, social work, counselling, and medicine Not yet a universally agreed upon definition for the “at risk” term-- lack of clarity of the concept “A term applied too often and too widely looses all meaning.” (Tidwell & Corona Garrett, 1994) Characteristics of the Resilient Child : Characteristics of the Resilient Child is good natured; has affectionate disposition (resilient temperament) has nondistressing habits during infancy positive social orientation and activity level accurate processing of interpersonal cues good means-end problem solving skills an ability to evaluate alternative actions from instrumental and affective perspectives the capacity to enact behaviors that accomplish desired outcomes a sense of self-efficacy; has sense of control over “fate” communicates effectively has sense of personal worthiness; high self-esteem is effective in work, play, and love asks for help; is assertive is above average in social intelligence has ability to have close relationships has healthy expectations and needs uses talents to personal advantage delays gratification has internal locus of control is flexible has desire to improve has interpersonal sensitivity has good problem solving and decision making abilities has future orientation (plans for the future) has trust and hope exhibits and manages a range of emotions has a sense of humor has relationship with caring adult has informal support network with friends and family engages in activities and hobbies Protective Factors : Protective Factors Individual Assets Positive peer group Problem solving skills Communication skills Positive conflict resolution skills Positive sense of self Takes responsibility for own behaviours Empathy and sensitivity towards others Protective Factors : Protective Factors Family Assets Positive adult role models Positive communication within the family Parental involvement in child’s life Clear rules and consequences within the family Time with family Protective Factors : Protective Factors School Assets Connectedness to school Supportive school environment Participation in after school activities Effective involvement in the school Relationship with one significant adult Community Assets Connectedness to community Positive and clear community norms and values Effective prevention policies Examples from research : Examples from research Evaluating the effects of the “Roots of Empathy” program on children’s social and emotional competence School Activity Participation and Children’s Social and Academic Success: The Hastings Community School Study The “Roots of Empathy:” An example of a school-based social-emotional competence promotion program : The “Roots of Empathy:” An example of a school-based social-emotional competence promotion program ROE is a universal primary preventive classroom-based social emotional competence promotion program (Kindergarten – grade 8) developed by Mary Gordon. The cornerstone of the program is a class visits by an infant, his/her parent and the instructor. It is during these visits that children learn about the baby’s growth and development via interactions and observations with the baby. The program was piloted in Toronto in 2 classrooms in 1996. In the current school year, 20,000 children in classrooms across Canada are receiving the program. The program is being piloted in Japan. What are the Goals and Theoretical Framework of ROE? : What are the Goals and Theoretical Framework of ROE? Overall, the ROE program is designed: To promote the development of children’s emotional and social understanding, To foster children’s prosocial qualities (concern for others, helpfulness, and cooperation), To reduce children’s aggression. Theoretical Framework View of empathy as multidimensional (Feshbach, 1979): Identification of emotions, Understanding emotions, Emotional regulation. Ecological Focus -- creation of a positive social milieu – that is, a “caring community” in the classroom. Theoretical Model of Social-Emotional Competence Development : Theoretical Model of Social-Emotional Competence Development Why focus on empathy? : Why focus on empathy? Empathy – defined here as an individual’s emotional responsiveness to the emotional experiences of another – is increasingly being recognized as an important dimension of social competence. Research findings indicate that empathy is crucial in determining children’s social functioning in both academic and interpersonal domains. Empathy has been identified by some as the most important of all personality characteristics because of the critical role it plays in helping individuals desist aggressive behaviors and, fostering prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping). Description of 2000-2001 Evaluation: Methodology : Description of 2000-2001 Evaluation: Methodology Participants 132 primary grade children drawn from 10 classrooms participated (ROE, n = 74; Comparison, n = 58). 61% ESL (majority Chinese, 21 languages) Comparison classrooms were matched on grade, gender, and race/ethnic composition. Constructs Measured Emotion Knowledge Social Understanding (e.g., perspective-taking) Social Behaviors (teacher-ratings) Procedure Children were individually interviewed at pre-test and post-test Interviews were transcribed and coded Teachers completed a modified version of the Child Behavior Scale (CBS; Ladd & Profilet, 1996) – a measure assessing several dimensions of aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors. Example: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the “Roots of Empathy” Program : Example: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the “Roots of Empathy” Program Findings from 2000-2001 Evaluation ROE children, relative to comparison children, demonstrated significant improvements in the following areas: Increased emotion knowledge Increased social understanding Increased prosocial behaviors with peers Decreased aggression with peers Decreased proactive aggression (e.g., bullying) Finding of 2000-2001 Evaluation- Social Behaviours: Proactive Aggression : Finding of 2000-2001 Evaluation- Social Behaviours: Proactive Aggression Of those children who evidenced some form of proactive aggression (bullying) at pre-test: ROE children: 88% decreased Comparison children: 50% increased : Of those children who evidenced some form of proactive aggression (bullying) at pre-test: ROE children: 88% decreased Comparison children: 50% increased 2002-2003 Rural/Urban Evaluation: Caring Classroom : 2002-2003 Rural/Urban Evaluation: Caring Classroom 2002-2003 Rural/Urban Evaluation: Peer Acceptance“Students who you would like to be in school activities.” : 2002-2003 Rural/Urban Evaluation: Peer Acceptance“Students who you would like to be in school activities.” Fostering Resiliency in School: The Hastings Community School Study : Fostering Resiliency in School: The Hastings Community School Study Involvement in School-Related Activities Previous research has linked involvement in school-related activities to: More positive school adjustment (higher academic achievement) Lower drop-out Lower delinquency Better mental health (e.g., lower depression) These relations have not yet been examined among students in elementary schools. Fostering Resiliency: The Role of Schools : Fostering Resiliency: The Role of Schools Non-Related Significant Adult Previous research has linked significant adults to “at risk” children’s resilience There is very little research that has examined this relation in the school context, especially elementary school. Almost no research has asked children to describe the characteristics of the adults whom children identify as significant. Research Questions : Research Questions Participation in school-related activities: Do children who participate in school-related activities differ from those children who do not on dimensions of school and social/emotional adjustment? The role of the significant non-related adult Do children identify a significant non-related adult? If so, do children who identify at least 1 significant adult differ on social and school competence than those children who do not identify anyone? What is the relation of academic dimensions to social and emotional dimensions (such as social responsibility, empathy, etc.)? Hastings’ Study:Method : Hastings’ Study:Method Participants 236 students from the 4th-6th grades. 52% female, 48% first language English, 31% Chinese, and 21% other, 98% of children participated in the study Measures : Measures Participation in School Related Activities Activity checklist to indicate all activities registered in during the 2002-2003 school year Activity consumer satisfaction scale (four point Likert-type scale) School Self-Concept (SDQ; Marsh, 1998) General Self-Concept (SDQ; Marsh, 1998) Academic Self-Efficacy (Academic Goals Questionnaire, Wentzel, 1998) Teachers’ ratings of: Academic Achievement Social Competence Measures (cont’d) : Measures (cont’d) Sense of Classroom as a Community Scale (Battistich et al., 1997) Prosocial Classroom (Wentzel, 1994) Social Responsibility (Wentzel, 1994) Perspective-Taking (Davis, 1983) Empathy (Davis, 1983) Self-Report of Prosocial Behaviours (sharing, helping, cooperating; Bandura et al., 1996) Important Adults from Hastings Community School: Questionnaire : Important Adults from Hastings Community School: Questionnaire Make a list of the adults from Hastings Community School who are important in your life. Person’s FirstName OR INITIALS. Is this person a man (M) or a woman (W)? What is this person’s job at your school? Does this person make you feel good about yourself? Can you trust this person? Can you talk to this person about your problems? Do you like spending time with this person? Now choose one of the people from above. Person: _______________________ List all the ways in which this person is important in your life. Results: School Participation : Results: School Participation Findings revealed that those students who reported participating in school activities, were higher than nonparticipating students on: General self-concept (self-esteem) School self-concept Prosocial Behaviors (sharing, helping, etc.) Perspective-Taking skills Teacher-rated social competence School Participation and Self Concept : School Participation and Self Concept School Participation and Social Competence : School Participation and Social Competence Results: Significant Adults and Competence : Results: Significant Adults and Competence Adults listed as significant Teachers – 57% Children’s descriptions of what makes an adult significant at Hastings, some examples “She taught me how to read” “Nice” “She helps me with my work” “Cause he gives me a warm feeling” “Helps me with my feelings” Significant Adults and Social Adjustment : Significant Adults and Social Adjustment Significant Adults and Social Adjustment : Significant Adults and Social Adjustment Relations of Academic Dimensions to Social Side of Learning : Relations of Academic Dimensions to Social Side of Learning Academic Achievement was related to higher levels of students’: Self-Concept Social Responsibility Prosocial Behaviour (sharing, helping, cooperating) Academic Motivation Teacher-rated Social Competence and Behavioral Adjustment Conclusions : Conclusions It is critical to the future of our society that we identify the factors that assist children to become competent, caring adults and productive citizens. We all share a stake in the development of children’s emotional and social competence and in identifying the processes that facilitate or undermine it. These data support the need for coordinated efforts that attend to the promotion of children’s positive academic and social-emotional development in community schools. Conclusions : Conclusions Thank You!! Questions What Works in Prevention? Principles of Effective Prevention Programs (Nation et al., 2003) : What Works in Prevention? Principles of Effective Prevention Programs (Nation et al., 2003) Comprehensive Multiple interventions Multiple settings Varied Teaching Methods Interactive instruction Active, hands-on experience Sufficient Dosage Enough of an intervention to produce desired effects Follow-up What Works in Prevention? : What Works in Prevention? Theory Driven Theoretical justification Supported by empirical research Positive Relationships Provide exposure to adults and peers in a way that promotes strong relationships and support positive outcomes Appropriately Timed Initiate early enough to have a positive impact Sensitive to developmental needs of participants What Works in Prevention? : What Works in Prevention? Socioculturally Relevant Tailored to the community and cultural norms of participants Include the target group in program planning and implementation Outcome Evaluation Programs have clear goals and objectives Effort to systematically document their results relevant to goals Well-trained Staff Program staff support the program and provided with sufficient training to implement the program SEL Books and Readings: : SEL Books and Readings: Cohen, J. (Ed.) (2001). Caring Classrooms/Intelligent Schools: The Social Emotional Eduaction of Young Children (Social and Emotional Learning, 2). New York, NY: Teacher's College Press. Cohen, J. (Ed.). Educating minds and hearts: Social emotional learning and the passage into adolescence. New York, NY: Teacher's College Press, Alexandria, VA: ASCD, co-publisher. Denham, Susanne A. (1998). Emotional Development in Young Children. The Guilford Press. Durlak, J. A. (1995). School-based prevention programs for children and adolescents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M., Kessler, R., Schwab-Stone, M. E., & Shriver, T. P. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Ellison, L. (2000). The Personal Intelligences: Promoting Social and Emotional Learning Elias, M.J., Arnold, H., & Steiger C. (Eds.) (2002). EQ+IQ: How to build smart, nonviolent, emotionally intelligent schools. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA. Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Haynes, N., Ben-Avie, & Ensign, J. (Eds.) (2003). How social and emotional development add up: Getting results in math and science education. New York: Teachers College Press. Kessler, R., (2000). The Soul of Education: Helping Students Find Connection, Compassion, and Character at School. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Knoll, M., (2001). Administrator's Guide to Student Achievement & Higher Test Scores. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Trade. Novick, B., Kress, J.S, Elias, M.J. (2002). Building Learning Communities with Character: How to Integrate Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Pasi, R.J. & Elias, M. (2001). Higher Expectations: Promoting Social Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement in Your School (Social Emotional Learning, 3). Patrikakou, E. N., Weissberg, R. P., Manning, J., Walberg, H. J., & Redding, S. (Eds.) (In press). School-family partnerships: Promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children. New York: Teachers College Press. SEL Books and Readings (Cont’d) : SEL Books and Readings (Cont’d) Patti, J., & Tobin, J. (2003). Smart school leaders: Leading with emotional intelligence. Iowa: Kendall Hunt. Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pollack, W. (1998). Real boys. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Salovey, P., & Sluyter, D. J. (Eds.). (1997). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. New York: Basic Books. Scales, P. C. & Leffert, N. (1999). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute. Shelton, C.M. & Stern, R. (2004). Understanding emotions in the classroom: Differentiating teaching strategies for optimal learning Selman, R. L. (2003). The promotion of social awareness: Powerful lessons from the partnership of developmental theory and classroom practice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Shure, M. B., Digeronimo, T. F. (Contributor), Sheldon, A. (Ed.).(1996). Raising a thinking child: Help your young child to resolve everyday conflicts and get along with others: The 'I Can Problem Solve' Program. Pocket Books. Shure, M. B., Digeronimo, T. F. (Contributor). (2000). Raising a thinking child workbook: Teaching young children how to resolve everyday conflicts and get along with others. Research Press. Shure, M. B. & Israeloff, R. (2000). Raising a thinking preteen : The 'I can problem solve' program for 8- to 12- year-olds. Henry Holt and Company, Inc. Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence: How practical and creative intelligence determine success in life. New York: Plume. Wood, C. (1999). Time to teach, Time to learn: Changing the pace of school. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children. Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.) (2004). Building academic success through social and emotional learning: What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press. (forthcoming, April, 2004) A Few Useful Websites : A Few Useful Websites http://www.goodcharacter.com/ (some good teaching guides) http://www.esrnational.org/ Educators for Social Responsibility http://www.uicedu/~Inucci/MoralEd/ Studies in Moral Development and Education This provides a very in-depth look at moral development. There are links to the latest practices and activities in the area moral development. It highlights featured articles on issues of moral development and books of interest. You can also visit this site to see some of the classroom practices that are associated with moral development or join the mailing list. It's all here! http://www.eiconsortium.org/ Consortium for Emotional Intelligence in Organizations http://www.prevention.psu.edu/ (prevention programs and research) http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/Default.htm (Blueprints for Violence Prevention - Model programs) http://www.devstu.org/ Developmental Studies Center This center is dedicated to children's intellectual, ethical and social development. This site is a great resource for teachers. Websites (cont’d) : Websites (cont’d) Centre for Academic and Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) http://www.casel.org CASEL is the best place in North American to obtain educator friendly materials and readings for promoting the social and emotional development of their students. You can download several articles and resources. Particularly useful is the newly published “Safe and Sound Guide: An Educational Leaders Guide for Evidence-Based Practice.” In this guide, the authors provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of 85 SEL programs designed to promote students’ social and emotional learning. In the appendix for this guide, the authors provide descriptions of each program along with contact information for obtaining the program. Development Studies Center (Child Development Project) http://www.devstu.org/ This center is dedicated to children's intellectual, ethical and social development. This site is a great resource for teachers. It outlines the centers school-based program as well as after school programs. Parents should check it out too. The center's website gives parents some direction in terms of their involvement in their children's development. It's a very comprehensive site. Studies in Moral Development and Education http://www.uicedu/~Inucci/MoralEd/ This website provides a very in-depth look at moral development. There are links to the latest practices and activities in the area moral development. It highlights featured articles on issues of moral development and books of interest. You can also visit this site to see some of the classroom practices that are associated with moral development or join the mailing list. It's all here! Roots of Empathy Primary Prevention Program http://www.rootsofempathy.org/ What is Roots of Empathy™? It's a rich, vital, and highly rewarding classroom parenting Roots of Empathy™ that teaches human development and nurtures the growth of empathy. A baby and parent(s) visit a classroom once a month for a 10-month period. A Roots of Empathy™ instructor works with students before, during, and after each visit. Students' learn about parenting, about themselves, about how others feel, and teachers almost always learn something new about their students. All the learnings springboard from visits with the baby. This website provides detailed information about a classroom-based prevention program designed to foster empathy and prevent antisocial/aggressive in children in grades Kindergarten to grade 8. Websites (cont’d) : Websites (cont’d) Children, Youth, and Families, Education and Research Network www.cyfernet.org ResilienceNet www.resilnet.uiuc.edu Resilience in Action www.resiliency.com Search Institute www.search-institute.org Taking Stock: Growth through Resilience: The post-traumatic growth interactive exercise www.helping.apa.org/resilience Websites (cont’d) : Websites (cont’d) Youthnetwork Links and Ideas: Advocacy and Prevention www.youthwork.com/advocacyprevresil.html Developmental Studies Center (Caring School Community Project) www.devstu.org Collaborative for Academic and Social and Emotional Learning www.casel.org Child and Adolescent Services Research Centre www..casrc.org Centre for Youth and Society (Univ. of Victoria) www.youth.society.uvic.ca Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda “Children and Youth At Risk” Symposium (2000) www.cmec.ca Coalition for Community Schools : Coalition for Community Schools http://www.communityschools.org/index.html (From the description on the web) The Coalition for Community Schools works toward improving education and helping students learn and grow while supporting and strengthening their families and communities. Community schools bring together many partners to offer a range of supports and opportunities to children, youth, families and communities -- before, during and after school, seven days a week. Strategies for Success: Strengthening Learning in Out-of-School Time. Strategies for Success : Strategies for Success: Strengthening Learning in Out-of-School Time. Strategies for Success The result of a year-long research project by Boston’s After-School for All Partnership, a $24 million funding partnership launched in 2001. This Partnership effort, led by Jennifer Davis, President of Massachusetts 2020 and Dr. Wilson of the Nellie Mae Education Foundation, commissioned seven research reports by respected institutions to develop a plan to improve learning in afterschool programs in Boston. The reports highlight the important contribution that afterschool programming can have on children’s academic achievement. Comment on Critical Hours report….(part of Boston After-School for all Partnerships) : Comment on Critical Hours report….(part of Boston After-School for all Partnerships) “Our data tell us that children in after-school programs have made real progress in improving their learning and academics,” said Wilson. “At a time of scarce resources we must continue to invest in those programs that we know are making a difference for our children. Clearly after-school programming is near the top of that list.” Dr. Miller noted, "Much of the current policy debate in Washington and on Beacon Hill misses the mark. There is a consensus in the research community that high-quality after-school programs--especially those that promote active learning and have consistent student participation--do increase student engagement. Increased engagement leads to positive, measurable academic outcomes." Afterschool Education: A New Ally for Education Reform by Gil G. Noam(excerpt from) : Afterschool Education: A New Ally for Education Reform by Gil G. Noam(excerpt from) There is also growing evidence that good afterschool programming makes a difference in kids' lives. Studies in child development and education suggest that attendance at afterschool is associated with better grades, peer relations, emotional adjustment, and conflict resolution skills. Children who attend programs also spend more time on learning opportunities and academic and enrichment activities than their peers. Combine this evidence with the statistics we know all too well-that unsupervised time after school is associated with involvement in violence, substance abuse, and other risk-taking behaviors-and the necessity for high-quality afterschool programs becomes even clearer. Effective School –Community Partner Websites : Effective School –Community Partner Websites The Search Institute http://www.search-institute.org/ (From the description on the web) Search Institute is an independent, nonprofit, nonsectarian organization whose mission is to advance the well-being of adolescents and children by generating knowledge and promoting its application. Search Institute conducts research and evaluation, develops publications and practical tools, and provides training and technical assistance. The institute collaborates with others to promote long-term organizational, and cultural change that supports the healthy development of all children and adolescents. National Institute of Out of School Time (NIOST) : National Institute of Out of School Time (NIOST) http://www.niost.org/index.html   (From the description on the web) For over 20 years, the National Institute on Out-of-School Time, at the Center for Research on Women at Wellesley College, has successfully brought national attention to the importance of children’s out-of-school time, influenced policy, increased standards and professional recognition, and spearheaded community action aimed at improving the availability, quality and viability of programs serving children and youth. NIOST’s varied initiatives have moved the field forward using three paths: ·        Research, Evaluation and Consultation ·        Policy Development and Public Awareness ·        Training and Curriculum Development UCLA School Mental Health Project : UCLA School Mental Health Project http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/ (From the description on the web) It is not a new insight that physical and mental health concerns must be addressed if schools are to function satisfactorily and students are to succeed at school. It has long been acknowledged that a variety of psychosocial and health problems affect learning and performance in profound ways. Such problems are exacerbated as youngsters internalize the debilitating effects of performing poorly at school and are punished for the misbehavior that is a common correlate of school failure. More recently, the efforts of some advocates for school-linked services has merged with forces working to enhance initiatives for community schools, youth development, and the preparation of healthy and productive citizens and workers. The merger has expanded interest in social-emotional learning and protective factors as avenues to increase students' assets and resiliency and reduce risk factors. More recently, the efforts of some advocates for school-linked services has merged with forces working to enhance initiatives for community schools, youth development, and the preparation of healthy and productive citizens and workers. The merger has expanded interest in social-emotional learning and protective factors as avenues to increase students' assets and resiliency and reduce risk factors. Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships : Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships http://scov.csos.jhu.edu/p2000/center.htm (From the description on the web) The nation’s schools must improve education for all children, but schools cannot do this alone. More will be accomplished if schools, families, and communities work together to promote successful students. The mission of this Center is to conduct and disseminate research, development, and policy analyses that produce new and useful knowledge and practices that help families, educators, and members of communities work together to improve schools, strengthen families, and enhance student learning and development. Research is needed to understand all children and all families, not just those who are economically and educationally advantaged or already connected to school and community resources. The Center’s projects aim to increase an understanding of practices of partnership that help all children succeed in elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Harvard Graduate School of Education - The Program in Afterschool Education and Research (PAER) : Harvard Graduate School of Education - The Program in Afterschool Education and Research (PAER) www.gse.harvard.edu/~afterschool/about/index.php (From the description on the web) Located at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE), is dedicated to making meaningful theoretical and practical contributions to the field of youth development, with a particular focus on afterschool time. The program was founded in 1999 by Dr. Gil Noam in response to the growing recognition that high-quality afterschool programs hold the promise of contributing to school reform, building resiliency, and preventing high-risk behavior in youth. PAER takes a developmental approach to the study of new models of effective afterschool programming, and incorporates educational, health, public policy, and psychological perspectives. PAER has established dynamic collaborations with other Harvard University departments, projects, and programs, and provided technical assistance to local communities and city-wide initiatives. "Afterschool Education deepens the understanding of anyone-policy makers, capacity-building organizations, program administrators, partnering educators, afterschool program leaders-who is invested in the effective use of afterschool resources to support young people's growth and progress." —Sam Piha, LCSW, Director for Community School Partnerships Afterschool Alliance : Afterschool Alliance http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/home.html (From the description on the web) The Afterschool Alliance is a nonprofit organization dedicated to raising awareness of the importance of afterschool programs and advocating for quality, affordable programs for all children. It is supported by a group of public, private and nonprofit organizations that share the Alliance's vision of ensuring that all children have access to afterschool programs by 2010. The Alliance was formed on the belief that afterschool programs are critical to children and families today, and that the need for programs is not adequately addressed. As many as 15 million children have no place to go after the school bell rings. These children are more likely to be victims of crime or to participate in risky behaviors. Meanwhile, children in afterschool programs have improved grades, behavior and school attendance. They have important opportunities to learn and grow.

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