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Published on October 11, 2007

Author: Natalia

Source: authorstream.com

Project management development in Russia:  Project management development in Russia Achievements and lessons learned Increasingly more projects become international and project managers from the different countries need:  Increasingly more projects become international and project managers from the different countries need to share terminology to speak the same language, to share experience and approaches to be able to work together, to learn about cultural differences for better understanding of each other. Russia :  Russia Remains terra incognita for the international PM community, Has a long history of PM development, Has a vast experience of large-scale projects, Has superior project management methods and tools. Russia: lessons learned:  Russia: lessons learned One should be familiar with the international terminology, approaches, methods and tools to be able to create international project management teams speaking the same professional language. International approaches will not work locally without proper adjustment. Russia: lessons learned:  Russia: lessons learned We have the negative experience of working with the American PM software - our approaches are different and the functions necessary for the Russian project managers are not supported by these PM packages. Russia: lessons learned:  Russia: lessons learned PMI certification opens great opportunities for project managers. It induces the Russian project managers to learn PMBOK Guide and the international project management glossary. Our experience of promoting project management in Russia:  Our experience of promoting project management in Russia Adaptation of accepted PM standards (A PMBOK Guide) for the usage in Russia, Development of local PM software, Application of modern PM methods and tools in important pilot projects, Establishment of PMI Moscow Chapter. One of our pilot projects - construction of the Olympic village for the 1st International Youth Games:  One of our pilot projects - construction of the Olympic village for the 1st International Youth Games We began to implement PM methods and tools at the moment when the project was two months behind the schedule. The project was finished two months ahead of the initial schedule. Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide PMBOK Guide offers a set of separate knowledge areas that, in fact, should not be separated. In the Russian counterpart of the PMBOK Guide The Outlines of Project Management the content of PMBOK Guide was reorganized in a more instructive, process-oriented way. Processes Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide Processes Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide In The Outlines much more attention was paid to resource management. The processes of Resource analysis and Resource control have no counterparts in A PMBOK Guide. Besides Resource planning should not be a part of Cost Management. Approaches Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide In Russia projects are often planned (especially in the construction industry) basing on the federal, local, industrial or corporate norms and standards that usually refer to resource productivity, costs and materials per unit of activity volume (volume of work to be done). Usage of these norms affects the planning of project activities. Approaches Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide Activity Duration Estimating in A PMBOK Guide doesn't support this approach. A PMBOK Guide does not employ the concept of activity volumes. Approaches Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide The main difference between the approaches: if activity volumes and resource productivity are used as the inputs in planning processes, activity duration can be estimated only after the assigned resources were chosen and project schedule calculated. Approaches Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide Resource analysis is an essential part of project execution analysis. It is vital for project time analysis to be able to forecast resource productivity. Monitoring of the actual resource performance allows to forecast trends and to make necessary adjustments of resource productivity databases. Resources Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide The usage of project resources varies at the different project phases and the forecasting that accounts for these differences is considerably more accurate than the methods of Earned Value Analysis. Resources Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide Methods of risk analysis should include estimations and simulations of activity volumes, resource productivity, resource availability, etc. The main problem with the methods described in A PMBOK Guide and offered by American risk simulating software is their initial assumption that cost and duration deviations of different activities are independent of each other. Risk Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide :  Adaptation of A PMBOK Guide It is wrong! Activities performed by the same resources have correlated duration and not taking it into consideration leads to producing wrong risk simulation results. Risk Multiple Hierarchical Breakdown Structures :  Multiple Hierarchical Breakdown Structures Spider Project users can create and use simultaneously an unlimited number of different Work and Resource breakdown structures in the same project. We consider this feature to be of key importance. Multiple Hierarchical Breakdown Structures :  Multiple Hierarchical Breakdown Structures The use of multiple breakdown structures allows not only to obtain the different project reports as seen from the different standpoints, but also to control if the project model is truly comprehensive. We use at least three Work breakdown structures in our projects: based on project objectives, project processes and implementers’ responsibilities. Multiple WBS :  Multiple WBS Sample project: Situation: At a local party a group of neighbors agreed to organize and establish a community swimming pool. Objective: To establish a community swimming pool including both physical facilities and organization to operate the system. Deliverables WBS:  Deliverables WBS Process WBS:  Process WBS Responsibility WBS:  Responsibility WBS Resource Critical Path :  Resource Critical Path Traditional critical path method works only in case of unlimited resource availability. The same is true for the total float concept. The total float determined by American PM packages shows the time reserve for the execution of activity, with the limitations on the amount of available resources ignored. Resource Critical Path :  Resource Critical Path Let’s consider a simple project consisting of only three independent activities, with the two of them having the planned duration of ten days, with the planned duration of the third activity of fifteen days. The first two activities need resource A to be executed, while the third activity needs resource B. Critical path and activity floats (before resource leveling):  Critical path and activity floats (before resource leveling) Resource critical path and activity resource floats (after resource leveling):  Resource critical path and activity resource floats (after resource leveling) Resource critical path P3 results:  Resource critical path P3 results Resource Critical Path :  Spider Project calculates resource critical path and the activity floats with resource limitations taken into consideration (resource floats). Resource Critical Path Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Critical Chain theory offers a number of reasonable techniques but none of them are new to us. On the other hand, it includes the assumptions that are seldom true and the recommendations that should not be followed. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain We never came across a clear description of the Critical Chain calculation. We believe that the best critical chain is our resource critical path that Spider Project calculates since 1993. We have a vast experience of working with resource critical path and we know that the assumption that the critical chain never changes during project execution is certainly wrong. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Critical Chain theory suggests to estimate activity completion times at 50% confidence points and to put a project buffer at the end of the project to protect completion schedule. We usually employ tougher estimates and calculate time reserves (time buffers) as described further. Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 1:  Assess risks and create optimistic, pessimistic and expected estimations of activity duration and volumes, resource productivity and quantity, activity and resource cost, calendars, etc. Estimates are usually based not only on expert judgement but also on state or corporate norms. Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 1 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 2:  Calculate expected resource and cost constrained project schedule and simulate risks. Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 2 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 3:  Calculate project and each phase target finish dates (usually with 65-75% probability of timely execution). Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 3 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 4:  Calculate optimistic resource constrained schedule and resource critical path that successfully substitutes critical chain and is easier to understand. Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 4 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 5:  Calculate target schedule with the optimistic activity duration but target finish dates (backward resource constrained schedule). Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 5 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 6:  Use the optimistic schedule as a plan for the employees. The difference between activity start dates in optimistic and target schedules is time reserve for management (time buffer). Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 6 Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 7:  Control risks and regularly recalculate necessary time buffers. Spider Project technology of project management includes the following main steps: 7 Example of project time buffers:  Example of project time buffers Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  Using optimistic estimates, we increase our chances to obtain the reports on any deviations from the proper activity execution. This information is necessary for quality and risk analysis. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  An example of dubious CCPM assumption - existence of drum resource. In some projects only one resource is critical, in others several resources are critical. What you have to do to minimize project expenses is to create project resource pool where most resources are critical. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  An example of dubious CCPM proposal - to avoid multitasking. The following slide shows sample project schedule containing activity 2 planned to be interrupted for better usage of project resources. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Multitasking:  Multitasking Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain :  You can choose another option: to delay the execution of activity 4 and avoid multitasking increasing project duration by 20 days. We don't think that it is the best solution. Resource Critical Path & Critical Chain Prospective trends of project management :  Prospective trends of project management Successful globalization of the project management profession depends on accumulation of global knowledge, approaches and tools and their integration in the common body of knowledge. Sharing our achievements and learning about the achievements of others we became richer, we increase our ability to be successful. Prospective trends of project management :  We anticipate the growth of interest in resource management that is obviously a weak point of known methods and tools. Proper resource management is a key to the project success. Prospective trends of project management Prospective trends of project management :  We expect that the development of risk management will capture resource work simulation. Increasingly more companies will integrate the project management component in their organizational structures and corporate culture. Prospective trends of project management Prospective trends of project management :  We expect that project management profession will become truly global with the global standards that can be applied anywhere and global certification that will succeed the existing PMP exams. We believe that PMI will be the leader in this process. We hope that the European Chapters will become much more involved in this process than they are at the moment. Prospective trends of project management THANK YOU:  THANK YOU We would appreciate your comments on this presentation. We invite everybody interested in developing common approaches to contact Moscow PMI Chapter (E-mail: spider@mail.cnt.ru).

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