Population Ecology Intro

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Information about Population Ecology Intro

Published on December 17, 2007

Author: itamarita1984

Source: slideshare.net

Description

chapter 5 population ecology notes

Population Ecology

What is population? Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

Does population change? Sea otters, kelp, and sea urchins

Sea otters, kelp, and sea urchins

Kelp forests offer a habitat for sea otters Sea urchins feed on kelp Sea otters feed on sea urchins

Kelp forests offer a habitat for sea otters

Sea urchins feed on kelp

Sea otters feed on sea urchins

Then come the hunters...

What do you think happens when sea otters are hunted? Sea urchins increase or decrease? Kelp forest increase or decrease? Sea otters are then placed on the endangered species list So now what happens to the population of sea otter? Starts to increase How does this affect the kelp and the sea urchins? Sea urchins start to get eaten again=decrease in # Kelp increases b/c less sea urchins to eat them

What do you think happens when sea otters are hunted?

Sea urchins increase or decrease?

Kelp forest increase or decrease?

Sea otters are then placed on the endangered species list

So now what happens to the population of sea otter?

Starts to increase

How does this affect the kelp and the sea urchins?

Sea urchins start to get eaten again=decrease in #

Kelp increases b/c less sea urchins to eat them

But now we have a new hunter….

What happens to the sea otter, kelp, and sea urchins?

What does this tell us about population? Population changes There are many factors that influence a population Natural Unnatural Population density has a great impact on ecosystems

Population changes

There are many factors that influence a population

Natural

Unnatural

Population density has a great impact on ecosystems

3 important characteristics of Population Geographic Distribution Density Growth Rate ***Population Age structure is also an important characteristic

Geographic Distribution

Density

Growth Rate

Geographic Distribution AKA Range Describes an area inhabited by a population Can vary Few cubic centimeters Kilometers of the ocean

AKA Range

Describes an area inhabited by a population

Can vary

Few cubic centimeters

Kilometers of the ocean

 

 

Density # of individuals per unit area Low density Cactus in desert High density Other desert plants and succulents

# of individuals per unit area

Low density

Cactus in desert

High density

Other desert plants and succulents

 

Math Time Formula for calculating population density Population density= Number of individuals units area Problem : Suppose there are 150 bullfrogs living in a pond that covers an area of 3 square kilometers. What is the density of the bullfrog population? 50 bullfrogs per square kilometer

Formula for calculating population density

Population density= Number of individuals

units area

Problem : Suppose there are 150 bullfrogs living in a pond that covers an area of 3 square kilometers. What is the density of the bullfrog population?

50 bullfrogs per square kilometer

Growth Rate Many factors affect growth rate

Many factors affect growth rate

3 Factors that affect population size # of births # of deaths # of individuals that enter or leave population Population will increase or decrease depending on # of individuals added or removed

# of births

# of deaths

# of individuals that enter or leave population

Have more births than deaths? Population increases Have more deaths than births? Population decreases Have equal amounts of births and deaths? Population remains constant What happens to the population when we….

Have more births than deaths?

Population increases

Have more deaths than births?

Population decreases

Have equal amounts of births and deaths?

Population remains constant

 

Immigration “ im”= in Migrate= to move from one place to another Immigration is the individual movement into an area Animals in search of mates and food in new areas

“ im”= in

Migrate= to move from one place to another

Immigration is the individual movement into an area

Animals in search of mates and food in new areas

 

 

 

 

Emigration “ E”  means ‘out’ Migrate  means to move from one place to another Emigrate means individuals moving out of one place and into another Young wolves and bears leaving as they mature Shortage of food

“ E”  means ‘out’

Migrate  means to move from one place to another

Emigrate means individuals moving out of one place and into another

Young wolves and bears leaving as they mature

Shortage of food

Two types of growth Exponential growth Individuals reproduce at a constant rate Logistic growth Occurs when a populations growth slows or stops after a period of exponential growth

Exponential growth

Individuals reproduce at a constant rate

Logistic growth

Occurs when a populations growth slows or stops after a period of exponential growth

Exponential Growth Occurs under ideal conditions with unlimited resources Think about exponents in math…. Starts slowly then sky rockets to infinity Our graph will look like a J Bacteria

Occurs under ideal conditions with unlimited resources

Think about exponents in math….

Starts slowly then sky rockets to infinity

Our graph will look like a J

Bacteria

Lets look at bacteria… Bacteria reproduce by splitting in half Bacteria have a doubling time of 30 minutes If you start will one bacterium, how many bacteria will there be after the first 30 minutes? 2 After an hour? 4 After an hour and a half? 8 After two hours? 16 After 15 hours? Over a billion

Bacteria reproduce by splitting in half

Bacteria have a doubling time of 30 minutes

If you start will one bacterium, how many bacteria will there be after the first 30 minutes?

2

After an hour?

4

After an hour and a half?

8

After two hours?

16

After 15 hours?

Over a billion

 

Logistic Growth As resources become less available, the growth of the population slows or stops S-shape curve What we usually see in nature

As resources become less available, the growth of the population slows or stops

S-shape curve

What we usually see in nature

 

Carrying Capacity The largest number of individuals that a given environment can support The part of the logistic graph after the exponential growth…the flattening out The point at which this flat line reaches the y-axis is the size of the population when the growth rate reaches zero This doesn’t mean the population stops growing Many factors slow the growth of plants and animals…

The largest number of individuals that a given environment can support

The part of the logistic graph after the exponential growth…the flattening out

The point at which this flat line reaches the y-axis is the size of the population when the growth rate reaches zero

This doesn’t mean the population stops growing

Many factors slow the growth of plants and animals…

 

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