Polymer innovationday2 110313_share

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Information about Polymer innovationday2 110313_share

Published on March 15, 2013

Author: WMGSME

Source: slideshare.net


Polymer Innovation Day held at the International Institute for Product and Service Innovation.

Polymer Innovation: Day 2 12th March 2013 Dr Ben Wood, WMG, University of Warwick b.m.wood@warwick.ac.uk @benjaminmwood© 2013

Welcome© 2013

Housekeeping© 2013

The mythical free lunch… • As always, not quite free! • Paperwork is our currency • 2 sets of forms at the end of the day • Please leave feedback! – …and tell us as we go if anything is wrong© 2013

Agenda 0845-0915 Registration, tea and coffee 0915-0945 Welcome and Introductions 0945-1100 Physical to Digital – Laser scanning and producing a CAD file 1100-1115 Refreshments Break 1115-1245 Digital to Physical – 3D printing and how to deal with ‘bad’ CAD 1245-1330 Lunch 1330-1500 Low Volume Manufacturing (including intro to CAD software) 1500-1515 Refreshments Break 1515-1600 Update on latest polymer technologies 1600 on 1 to 1s with the Polymer Innovation team – individual projects© 2013

What are we going to talk about?© 2013

Introductions – Dr Alex Attridge – Dr Greg Gibbons – Dr Kylash Makenji – Martin Worrall© 2013

Physical to Digital Scanning technologies and creating useful data© 2013

Physical to Digital • Contents – Why go from physical to digital? – Technologies for collecting data • Laser Scanning • X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) • Structured Light and Photogrammetry – Laser scanning demo – Case study examples© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? • There are a number of reasons: – Measurement/CAD comparison – Simulation/virtual testing • CFD for fluid flow or aerodynamic modelling • FEA for stress analysis – Create tooling from a physical prototype – Benchmarking competitor product – Reverse engineer to surface model or CAD© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? Colour chart and measurements showing deviation from CAD© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? Creation of an FE mesh for a fatigue crack specimen to help understand the effect of the crack on performance of the part© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? Creation of a digital surface model from a 1/3 scale Le Manns Prototype class clay model, to enable a full-scale physical model to be machine cut for use as a plug for the bodywork mouldings© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? Internal benchmarking of an automotive switchgear mechanism, carried out as part of a “switch feel” customer clinic study© 2013

Why Physical to Digital? Reverse engineering to CAD of a suspension component from a classic rally car to improve strength and compatibility with modern suspension leg/damper technology© 2013

Collecting data • Different technologies for capturing 3D surface geometry: – Laser scanning – X-Ray CT scanning – Structure light scanning (white/blue) – Photogrammetry • Different technologies for different applications© 2013

Laser scanning • Typically utilises Class 2 red laser light • Move laser “stripe” over the surface to be measured • “Stripe” is actually made up of hundreds of points • Point cloud of data collected – x, y, z, co-ordinates • Post-processing required but easy to create mesh© 2013

Laser scanning Point Cloud (XYZ) Accuracy 10µm – System Accuracy approx 40µm 75 stripes/sec - 1000 points/sec data collection Digital Calibration for every point captured© 2013

Multiple lasers Line Scanner Cross Scanner© 2013

Laser scanning Manual Measurement Arm (Faro, Nikon, Roma etc.) Optical CMM On-CMM laser scanning head© 2013

Laser scanning • Good for collecting complex surface geometry • Software can identify and characterise features • CMM or portable systems • Simple to use – quick results • Data captured not perfect – line of sight issues© 2013

X-Ray CT scanning • Uses X-ray technology to create a digital 3D model of the object scanned • Similar concept to medical CT, but much higher powered and much more accurate • Limit to size and density of object to be scanned© 2013

CT Scanning of an object to get Projection Images - Using XT 320 H Machine Object with a Projection Image cylindrical hole on screen inside Detector Projection Image at Projection Image at angle 2 deg. angle 1 deg. X-ray source Rotary table STL format export DICOM Image series export Point cloud data export Reconstructed 3D model visualization as 3D object reconstruction by back-projecting the stack of images - Using visualization software projection images - Using reconstruction software© 2013

X-Ray CT scanning • Excellent technology for internal inspection • Typically good quality data generated • Very large file sizes • Struggles with big changes in density© 2013

Structured light Traditionally white light More recently blue light Projects pattern on to surface Pattern is distorted and captured© 2013

Structured light GOM Phase Vision Breuckmann© 2013

Structured light Often used to characterise panels, clay models, people(!) etc. Good for large surfaces Not so good for smaller objects Can take a while to set up© 2013

Photogrammetry Digital SLR Approx 60 photographs Cloud-based software 3D digital model© 2013

Digital to Physical Additive Layer Manufacturing© 2013

Digital to Physical • Contents – Data generation for ALM • Data sources and examples • Data repair – System setup – an overview – System set-up - practical hands-on) – ALM – ‘the real deal’© 2013

DATA GENERATION 15/03/2013 31© 2013

Data Generation • All systems use a ‘.STL’ file: – Surface triangulated mesh file representing the surface of a component • STL files can be generated from – Directly from export of 3D CAD – Surface scan data – Volumetric (e.g CT data) • Data from any of these methods may require pre- processing to be useable in ALM© 2013

STL files from CAD • Use ‘export ‘or ‘save as’ function to create STL© 2013

STL files from surface scan • Scan of iPhone 4 case:© 2013

STL from CT/MRI scan© 2013

Errors in STL files • Some STL files can be very poor quality • Particularly from scan or CT… …but can be poor CAD: – Missing surfaces – Gaps – Intersecting surfaces – Inverted triangle normals© 2013

Errors in STL files • Most ALM systems will not tolerate this and will require a ‘perfect’ STL file – One single continuous surface – All surface normals are correct • Software is available to fix errors relatively easily 15/03/2013© 2013

System Setup – Overview • STL file is the starting point for any ALM system • STL may contain colour information (color STL) – Currently only ZCorp systems – Mcor about to release colour system based on bonded paper sheets (Iris) • VRML colour files are also accepted in ZCorp systems© 2013

System Setup – Overview • All system have proprietary software, e.g: – Insight (Stratsys – FDM) – Objet Studio (Objet - MJM) – Zprint (ZCorp – 3D Printing) • Functions available: – Operators on model • E.g. rescale, rotate, translate, copy – Support generation – Selection of build parameters • Usually defaults, but can ‘play’ on some systems – Obtain time, material usage information • Useful for quoting purposes© 2013

System Setup – Overview • Some systems require a support structure to be generated • This is always necessary for non-powder bed based systems • Support acts as a surface to accept the next layer • The system interface software generates this automatically • Some control on the type of support is allowed, usually to minimise material usage – Density – Shape© 2013

System Setup – Overview • Additional functionality is available with the ‘new’ multi- material printers, giving the ability to: – insert an assembly and define the type of material of each part in the assembly – overcoat with materials – choose glossy or matte surface finish© 2013


Additive manufacturing– the real deal • Materials • Accuracy • Resolution • Sizes • Time • Costs • ‘non added value’ activity© 2013

Polymers • Most common thermoplastics are: – SLS (PA, PS) – FDM (ABS, PLA, PC, PEEK) • Most common thermosets are: – Acrylic (MJM) – Epoxy (SLA) – Wax-like (for investment casting) • The HDT of FDM materials is equal to the IM grade • The HDT of other polymers is usually lower than 500C • High temperature polymers are available – PEEK (SLS) – PPSF, ULTEM (MJM) • Transparency is available but not for FDM and SLS – Translucency is available for FDM (ABSi - Methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene- stryrene copolymer) • Fire retardancy is available (most systems) • Biocompatibility is available (non-implantable) for most systems© 2013

Metals • Most metals processed using SLS • Wide range of commercial materials – Ti, Ti alloys, stainless steel, Inconels, CoCr, Maraging steel, tool steel, aluminium… • Now systems processing Ag, Au, Pt (EOS-Cookson Metals tie-up) • Mechanical properties usually approach or match those of wrought materials© 2013

Accuracy, Resolution • Resolution and accuracy are not the same! • Accuracy and resolution are complex and are highly dependent on system and component size, and on quality of calibration Accuracy Resolution x y z x y z SLS 30 30 20 100 100 20 metal SLS 100 100 100 50 50 50 polymer MJM 20 20 16 40 40 16 3DP 250 250 89 100 100 89 15/03/2013© 2013

Size • Polymers – Wide range of size capabilities (50mm-3m+) – Small bed sizes often have higher resolution – Large bed sizes often have faster build rates • Metals – Most metals systems have beds <300x300x300mm – Soon to be released have 500x500x300mm© 2013

Time • Time is very difficult to assess from an STL file since: • Time is dependent upon: – Part volume – Part dimensions – Part orientation – Material used (even in the same process) – Level of finishing required – How much you want to pay (premium for queue jumping)© 2013

Costs (using a bureau) • Not easy to assess just from an STL file since: • Cost is very much dependent upon: – Volume of the component (amount of material) – Part dimensions – Cost of the material – Amount of support material – Resolution required (number of slices) – Orientation required (taller the dearer) – Number of parts required (often cheaper per part to have multiples – especially for SLS) – Level of finish required© 2013

Costs (in-house) • If you have system in-house, need to consider: – Maintenance costs – Material costs (including scrap, waste) – Consumables costs – Infrastructural costs – Labour costs (set-up and clean-down) • Costs can vary widely depending on the system – System - £500-£1m+ – Maintenance – £100 – £30k PA – Material - £1 - £600 /kg – Infrastructural - £0 - £100k + – Labour - £5 - £200 per part© 2013

Low Cost Systems • Recent huge rise in ultra- low cost systems – Makerbot, BFB, Cubify … • Based on FDM technology • £500 - £2,500 • Material costs ~£20/kg • No dedicated computer • No training • Simple post-processing© 2013

Low Volume Manufacturing: Bridging the Gap Dr Ben Wood & Dr Kylash Makenji IIPSI© 2013

Outline • Identifying the problem – How to go from prototype to production? • Direct manufacturing methods • Rapid Tooling – Indirect – Direct • Live demo of direct tooling© 2013

The Problem Injection Moulding Rotational Tooling Moulding Cost Compression Moulding Low Volume CNC Machining Manufacturing ALM 1 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000+ Number of Parts© 2013

What is Rapid Tooling? • Early definition of Rapid Tooling: “a process that allows a tool for injection moulding and die casting operations to be manufactured quickly and efficiently so the resultant part will be representative of the production material.” - Karl Denton 1996 • With Rapid Tooling now covering a wider range of applications, this has generalised to: “a range of processes aimed at reducing both the cost and time for the manufacture of tooling.”© 2013

Classification of Rapid Tooling • Indirect – Use of a Rapid Prototype (RP) pattern to manufacture a tool in a secondary operation Mould tool ALM original Make parts from original • Direct – Directly produce the tool using a layer-additive process Make ALM tool parts© 2013

Indirect Rapid Tooling • Cast tooling – Cast resin tooling – Cast metal tooling – Cast ceramic tooling • Metal spray tooling – Kirksite thermal spray tooling – Rapid Solidification Process tooling – Sprayform tooling • Indirect laser sintered tooling – 3D LaserForm process • 3D Printed tooling – Extrude Hone Prometal© 2013

Cast Resin Tooling • Obtained by two primary methods: – Room temperature vulcanised silicone – Rigid resin tooling • Both involve the following steps: ALM Split tool, Fill cavity Blocking Pour over model of remove with liquid out liquid resin original original resin© 2013

Cast Resin Tooling Room Temperature Vulcanised (RTV) Silicon tooling • Silicone rubber tools for vacuum casting of (generally) polyurethane parts • Resin parts vacuum cast or injected into tool • Expensive materials • Low volume (~30 parts) / extremely rapid (1-2 days)© 2013

Cast Resin Tooling Rigid resin tooling • Aluminium filled epoxy resin tools used for injection / blow moulding • Difficult and slow to mould parts – Need to protect tool, so not „real‟ settings • Expensive materials • Volumes up to ~500 / very rapid (3-5 days)© 2013

Direct Rapid Tooling • Direct metallic tooling – Direct laser melted metallic tooling • EOSint M DirectTool • MCP Selective Laser Melting (SLM) • Direct polymeric tooling – 3D Printed mould inserts • Object Connex 260 • Fortus FDM© 2013

Laser Melted Metallic Tooling Many similar processes, 2 most employed are: • DirectTool – EOS GmbH • Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – MCP Inc Process involves: • Generating CAD model of tool • Additive manufacture of tool by selectively melting thin layers of fine metal powder using a laser© 2013

Laser Melted Metallic Tooling DirectTool (EOS Gmbh) • Latest system: EOSINT M270 • Materials: • DSH20 (tool steel) • DS20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm steel) • DM20 / 50 (20mm and 50mm bronze) • Very hard tooling possible (42HRc) • Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 20mm layers • Conformal cooling channels© 2013

Laser Melted Metallic Tooling Selective Laser Melting (MPC Inc) • Latest system: „Realizer‟ • Materials: • Any metallic powders 10-30mm • Stainless steel most common • Very high accuracy (~50mm) / 50mm layers • Conformal cooling channels© 2013

ALM Polymer Inserts • Manufacture a tool insert by ALM (Connex 260) – Accurate – Good surface finish – Very rapid (30 mins-2 hours) – £10-£50 material cost© 2013

ALM Polymer Inserts • Ready for mass production – Injection mould tooling – Lower cost ‘pocket’ tool – Can be used with wide range of inserts • Easy, quick and inexpensive to make changes© 2013


Polymers© 2013

Material Compatibility© 2013

Process Comparison Capital Process Equipment Production Rate Tooling Cost Part Volumes Cost Compression Low Slow Low 100 – 1 mill Moulding Vacuum Forming Medium Medium Medium 10,000 – 1 mill Injection Moulding High Fast High 10,000 – 100 mill Extrusion Medium Fast Low – Medium Med - High Blow Moulding Medium Medium Medium 1,000 – 100 mill Rotational Medium Slow Medium 100 – 1 mill Moulding© 2013

Summary • Many potential manufacturing routes for low volume – Right choice depends on part and material • ALM can be used for much more than prototyping – Key to most rapid tooling methods© 2013

Adding Functionality IIPSI Capabilities and State of the Art© 2013

Outline • Shape memory polymers – Active disassembly • Printed and plastic electronics – Conductive polymers – Low cost applications – Integration • What would you like to see?© 2013

Shape Memory Polymers • Can be ‘programmed’ to change shape when given a trigger • High material cost = niche applications Mould Force into Set Return to part temporary temporary original shape shape shape Heat Cool Heat FORCE Restrain© 2013

SMP Research Focus Medical Aerospace/defence – morphing wings Outer Space – Zero Gravity© 2013

SMPs for SMEs! • ‘Active’ disassembly – Ideal for automotive, consumer electronics • Automatically release at end of life – Materials separation, recycling • Low complexity – Maximise added value© 2013


Conductive Polymers • Actual conductive polymers not common – Difficult to process, not like plastics – Normally dissolved in solvent • Applications in PV and EL/OLED – Useful as part of a printed or plastic electronic component© 2013

Plastic and Printed Electronics • Growth area – Funding opportunities • Costs reducing – Expensive materials vs volume production • Key applications – Display technology – ‘Smart’ Packaging – IoT© 2013

Plastic Electronics • Electroluminescence (EL) – Low energy, low heat lighting – Simple circuit PEDOT-PSS transparent electrode +ve Zinc Sulphide Phosphor LIGHT Dielectric -ve Reflective (silver) rear electrode Surface© 2013

EL Applications© 2013

Low Cost Plastic Electronics Airbrush Method© 2013

Low Cost Plastic Electronics Screen Printing Type Method© 2013

Low Cost Plastic Electronics Direct In-Mould Layer Application© 2013

Low Cost Plastic Electronics Post Mould Layer Application© 2013

Printed Electronics • Inkjet printing technology – Silver and carbon -based inks • Simple, low voltage circuits – Resistors – Switches – Conductive tracks – LEDs – (Low power) batteries© 2013

Hybrid 3D Printing • Bespoke system hybridising MJM with syringe deposition – 2 x 512, 14pl nozzle heads, individually addressed – High viscosity liquid dispensing – Continuous flow for deposition of resins with highly suspended solids – SmartPump for deposition of higher viscosity resins and pastes at extremely high resolution© 2013

Hybrid 3D Printing • Integrated manufacture – Functional components – Electronic circuits • Facilitates adding of functionality and connectivity – Eg interactive books – Internet of Things (IoT)© 2013

Summary • Complex circuits require expensive kit and specialist knowledge • Market is growing, costs coming down – Printing technology, roll-to-roll • Simple circuits achievable with low capital – Layer-by-layer deposition of materials • Future is in integration – IoT – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zG2dvxSKEGU – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kgw51_PtDSs© 2013

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