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Pollution Prevention

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Information about Pollution Prevention
Education

Published on October 8, 2008

Author: aSGuest595

Source: authorstream.com

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Pollution Prevention:A Win-Win Solution : Pollution Prevention:A Win-Win Solution Paul L. Bishop, Ph.D., P.E., DEE Associate Dean for Graduate Studies and Research College of Engineering University of Cincinnati Tulane Engineering Forum 2002 Sustainability : Sustainability Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable - to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 World Summit onSustainable Development : World Summit onSustainable Development Earth Summit 2002: Aug. 26 – Sept. 6, 2002 191 countries represented Developed plan to alleviate poverty and conserve natural resources World Summit on Sustainable Development - Water : World Summit on Sustainable Development - Water Aim is to halve the number of people in the world without clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 (1.1 billion people) World Summit on Sustainable Development – Renewable Energy : World Summit on Sustainable Development – Renewable Energy Sets goal of “substantially increasing” global share of renewable energy sources Unfortunately, no targets or timetables set Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption : Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption World Resources Institute, 1992 World Summit on Sustainable Development – Global Warming : World Summit on Sustainable Development – Global Warming Kyoto Protocol on climate change is assured of entry into force with its ratification by Canada, Russia and China, but the U.S. still refuses to sign Top Ten TRI Chemicals Released, 1995 : Top Ten TRI Chemicals Released, 1995 Top Ten OSHA Carcinogens Released, 1995 : Top Ten OSHA Carcinogens Released, 1995 Largest Producers ofHazardous Wastes, 1990 : Largest Producers ofHazardous Wastes, 1990 Growth of Major Environmental Lawsin the U.S. : Growth of Major Environmental Lawsin the U.S. Changes in U.S. Environmental Regulations : Changes in U.S. Environmental Regulations Slide 13: “We have learned the inherent limitations of treating and burning wastes. A problem solved in one part of the environment may become a new problem in another part. We must curtail pollution closer to its origin so that it is not transferred from place to place.” William Reilly former U.S. EPA Administrator 1990 Zero Pollution is a Goal, But Usually Never Totally Achievable : Zero Pollution is a Goal, But Usually Never Totally Achievable What is Pollution Prevention? : What is Pollution Prevention? Reducing or eliminating toxic materials replacing a material in the production line reformulating the product installing new or modifying existing process equipment Closed loop (on-site) recycling Should involve a holistic approach Slide 16: A waste is a resource out of place. P2 Hierarchy : P2 Hierarchy Process Development And Design : Process Development And Design Refinement of a process concept from early conceptual stages through preliminary engineering Waste generation can often be minimized through proper design and operation of the process system Typical Environmental Design Constraints and Objectives : Typical Environmental Design Constraints and Objectives LCA : LCA Life-cycle analysis (LCA) is a sophisticated way of examining the total environmental impact of a product through every step of its life -- from obtaining raw materials all the way through making it in a factory, selling it in a store, using it in the home, and disposing of it. What is LCA? : What is LCA? Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the potential environmental aspects associated with a product (or service), by: compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs, evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs, interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study. Product Life Cycle : Product Life Cycle LCA and the Regulatory Process : LCA and the Regulatory Process LCA is voluntary in the U.S. At present its use is limited, but expanding LCA is mandatory in some European countries used as the basis of packaging recovery and recycling targets Benefits Of LCA : Benefits Of LCA companies can claim one product is better than another on the basis of LCA LCA inventory process helps to narrow in on the area where the biggest reductions in environmental emissions can be made can be used to reduce production costs LCA ExampleLCA for a Woman’s Polyester Blouse : LCA ExampleLCA for a Woman’s Polyester Blouse Basis of Pollution Prevention Planning : Basis of Pollution Prevention Planning requires a detailed understanding of how a company does business and how it makes its products the plan should provide a mechanism for comprehensive and continuous review of company’s activities as they pertain to environmental issues Major Elements of aPollution Prevention Plan : Major Elements of aPollution Prevention Plan building support for the plan throughout the company organizing the program setting goals and objectives performing a preliminary assessment of P2 opportunities identifying potential problems and solutions Environmental Management Systems : Environmental Management Systems P2 planning procedures are now unified into a comprehensive system for managing environmental impacts by industry ISO 14000 standards establish benchmarks for environmental management performance, and describe the measures that must be taken by industry to conform to these standards ISO 14000 EMS Model Principles : ISO 14000 EMS Model Principles ISO 14000: Commitment and Environmental Policy Environmental Management Plan Implementation Measurement and Evaluation Continual Review and Improvement Green Design : Green Design term coined by Office of Technology Assessment signifies a design process in which environmental attributes of a product are treated as design opportunities, rather than design constraints incorporates environmental objectives with minimum loss to product, useful life or functionality Dual Goals of Green Design : Dual Goals of Green Design Old Design Philosophy : Old Design Philosophy “The primary function of the design engineer is to make things difficult for the fabricator and impossible for the serviceman.” Design for Environment (DfE) : Design for Environment (DfE) A practice by which environment considerations are integrated into product and process engineering design procedures (Allenby, 1991) Product Design : Product Design Green Chemistry : Green Chemistry synthesis, processing and use of chemicals that reduces risks to human health and the environment synthetic chemistry designed to use and generate fewer hazardous substances aims at reducing the use of endangered resources by switching to more plentiful or renewable resources Design for Disassembly : Design for Disassembly Facilitates the separation of components and materials from used products to encourage recycling and reuse. Uses a cyclical approach to production as opposed to the current linear system. Addresses the end disposal of a product as an opportunity to reuse materials. Hierarchy of Recycling Options : Hierarchy of Recycling Options Ways to Minimize Packaging : Ways to Minimize Packaging Reduce packaging eliminate packaging by distributing the products unpackaged use reusable packaging modify product so it requires less packaging reduce amount of packaging used Material substitution used recycled and recyclable materials use degradable materials Slide 39: Cross-section of a Snack Bag Packaging that appears simple and easy to recycle may not be Copolymer Polypropylene Copolymer Inks Polyethylene Aluminum metalization Copolymer Polypropylene Copolymer Machinability Adhesion Moisture barrier Stiffness Clarity Puncture resistance Ink adhesion Graphics quality Interlaminar adhesion Barrier to oxygen, moisture, and light Metal adhesion Stiffness Moisture barrier Seal integrity Hot seal strength Easy Opening Tamper evidence Sustainable Development : Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Conclusion : Conclusion “If we fail to convert our self-destructing economy into one that is environmentally sustainable, future generations will be overwhelmed by environmental degradation and social disintegration. Simple stated, if our generation does not turn things around, our children may not have the option of doing so.” L.R. Brown, 1993 Slide 42: “It took Britain half the resources of the planet to achieve its prosperity; how many planets will a country like India require....?” Mahatma Gandhi [when asked if, after independence, India would attain British standards of living]

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