Political Patterns Part II

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Information about Political Patterns Part II
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Tutu1

Source: authorstream.com

Culture Regions:  Culture Regions Political culture regions Political diffusion Political ecology Politico-cultural integration Political landscapes Politico-cultural integration :  Politico-cultural integration The nation-state Characteristics A type of independent country which results when people have a common heritage, homeland, and culture The people speak the same language and/or share a particular religion They possess a desire for nationhood and achieve political independence Nationality is culturally defined The raison d’être lies in the cultural identity The more people have in common culturally, the more stable and potent is their nationalism The nation-state:  The nation-state Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have characterized much of human history and might be linked to instinctual territoriality Examples of modern nation-states that have culturally homogenous populations, with only small minority groups Germany Sweden Japan Greece Armenia Finland The nation-state:  The nation-state Many other countries function as nation-states because power is held by a dominant, nationalistic cultural group Contain sizable ethnic minorities treated as second-class citizens Minorities represent centrifugal forces Israel is trying to cope with a sizable Arab minority New nation-states contain large, territorially compact ethnic minorities — former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia The nation-state:  The nation-state Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have characterized much of human history and might be linked to instinctual territoriality Examples of modern nation-states that have culturally homogenous populations, with only small minority groups Germany Sweden Japan Greece Armenia Finland The multinational country :  The multinational country Make up the majority of independent countries and are not nation-states Usually have federal rather than strong central governments — examples include: Switzerland Canada The United Kingdom South Africa Belgium All are older multinational countries The multinational country :  The multinational country A much larger number have arisen in recent decades Result of the collapse of European-based colonialism Most in Africa Political boundaries drawn without regard to the integrity of cultural or tribal groups Ethnic separatism :  Ethnic separatism We live in an age of rising ethnic nationalism One ethnic minority after another demands independence or autonomy Ethnic separatism :  Ethnic separatism Results of rising ethnic nationalism Old stable multinational countries are feeling the effects — Canada, the United Kingdom Some multinational countries have splintered — the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia Ethiopia discarded its unitary government and adopted an ethnic-based federalism in hopes of preserving unity Ethnic separatism :  Ethnic separatism The impact ranges from: Simple unrest to insurgencies Forced deportations Attempted genocides Secessions The problem in Quebec, Canada:  The problem in Quebec, Canada Contains most of Canada’s approximately 7 million French Canadians Constitute a cultural-linguistic minority seeking autonomy or even secession Descended from French colonists who immigrated in the 1600s and 1700s Lived under English or Anglo-Canadian rule from 1760 until well into the twentieth century The problem in Quebec, Canada:  The problem in Quebec, Canada Laws of Quebec retain a predominantly French influence French is the sole legal language The visible use of English, illegal until recently, was expunged In several elections, a sizable minority voted for independence Many Anglo-Canadians have emigrated from Quebec Quebec, Canada:  Quebec, Canada Canada has two official languages, French and English. All provincial signs are supposed to be in both languages, yet this sign, welcoming visitors to Quebec’s capital, is in French only. Quebec, Canada:  Quebec, Canada Contrary to national policy, Quebec has French-only laws and all signage, by provincial law, must be in French. Although the separatist Parti Quebecois was voted into power in 1994, the majority did not vote to separate. Quebec, Canada:  Quebec, Canada This implies that, at least for now, most Francophones want to actively preserve and promote their unique cultural heritage within the Canadian federal system. Politico-cultural integration:  Politico-cultural integration The international political map has taken on a linguistic-religious character Border wars and forced migration of minorities could become common in the future The cleavage model:  The cleavage model Originally proposed by Stein Rokkan and Seymour Lipset Proposes that persistent regional patterns in voting behavior can usually be explained in terms of tensions pitting: National core area versus peripheral districts Urban versus rural Capitalists versus workers Power-group culture versus minority culture The cleavage model:  The cleavage model Commonly, tensions coincide geographically, with the result that the core area: Monopolizes power and wealth Is more urbanized Links government to the ruling elite culture Ethnic minorities often live in peripheral, largely rural, and less affluent areas The cleavage model:  The cleavage model Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist movements that have moved beyond unrest to violence or secession Involve groups living away from core areas Seceded republics from the former U.S.S.R.—lie outside Russia Slovenes and Croats occupied border territories in Yugoslavia Northern Ireland lies on the periphery of the United Kingdom Kurdistan is on the edge of Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey who now rule Kurdish lands The cleavage model:  The cleavage model Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist movements that have moved beyond unrest to violence or secession Restive Tibet is on the margin of China Arab West Bank-Gaza districts under Israeli rule are peripheral Slovakia, poor and more rural than the Czech Republic was remote from the center of power at Prague The cleavage model:  The cleavage model In fewer cases, the secessionist peripheries were actually more prosperous than the political core area Federalist government reduces core versus periphery tensions Reduces appeal of separatist movements Switzerland has been able to join speakers of German, French, Italian, and Raeto-Romansh into a single, stable country The cleavage model:  The cleavage model Canada developed under Francophone pressure toward a Swiss-type system Russia has been obliged to adopt a more federalist structure to accommodate demands of ethnic minorities Has 31 ethnic republics within One republic, Chechnya has fought and won de-facto independence Sakba Republic :  Sakba Republic Located in Russia’s Siberia province Example of rising ethnic demands Forms one-fifth of Russia’s land area and contains about one million people Roughly 35 percent of population is ethnic Sakha or Yakut—people of Turkic origin Russians, who outnumber Sakha are concentrated in ten urban areas Sakba Republic :  Sakba Republic Sakha dominant in rural/small-town core of republic Demands of Sakha led to declaration of state sovereignty in 1990 Has its own elected president and parliament Has its own flag, coat-of-arms, and a constitution Has attained some measure of genuine economic independence Sakba Republic :  Sakba Republic A 1995 survey revealed 72 percent of all ethnic Yakuts felt more loyalty to Sakha than to Russia A third of all Russians expressed same loyalty to Sakha over Russia Sakha had not yet tried to seek independence Autonomy represents embryo of a nation-state Ongoing Russian emigration from Sakha complicates the matter Cleavage model :  Cleavage model Political imprint on economic geography In the cleavage model economic contrasts clearly reveal the internal spatial arrangement of the country’s economic influence Cleavage model :  Cleavage model Laws differing from one country to another often impact on economic land use giving political boundaries an economic character United States-Canadian border in the Great Plains Crosses an area of environmental and cultural sameness Different laws and regulations, foster differences in agricultural practices In the United States, an act passed in the 1950s encouraged sheep raising by guaranteeing an incentive price for wool In Canada, farmers devoted more attention to hogs Cleavage model :  Cleavage model Borders also usually cause economic disruptions Highway networks become fragmentary in border zones Need to control border crossings Some countries close borders stopping the flow of goods Austrian-Czech border :  Austrian-Czech border Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India:  Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India This military post not only guards the Indian-Tibetan border, but is also the source of the Sutlej River. Irrigation water from this Himalayan river is critical for survival in both India and Pakistan. Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India:  Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India The blue sign (in Tibet) says “Welcome to the Land of God.” The English reflects the colonial influence. Since it is very difficult to clearly demarcate borders in mountainous regions, such areas are often disputed. Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India:  Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India India has deliberately constructed roads into the border regions to ensure control. Because of snow, these roads are only open three or four months a year and are frequently destroyed by landslides and floods. Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India:  Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India Under army supervision, local and migrant labor is employed to repair the damage. Work is done by men, women and children. Culture Regions:  Culture Regions Political culture regions Political diffusion Political ecology Politico-cultural integration Political landscapes Imprint of the legal code:  Imprint of the legal code Laws regulating the land-survey system can be quite noticeable Often require that land be divided into specific geometric patterns Political boundaries as a result, become highly visible Quebec encourages land survey in long, narrow parcels Most English-speaking provinces of Canada adopted a rectangular system Imprint of the legal code:  Imprint of the legal code Legal decisions made long ago by a vanished government can remain imprinted on the landscape Example of former Danish provinces of Schleswig and Holstein now German Danish laws broke up farm villages and dispersed rural populations in isolated farmsteads Many fragmented landholding were combined into unit-block farms In nearby German-ruled provinces different laws prevailed Over a century later the old border is still visible Imprint of the legal code:  Imprint of the legal code Legal imprints can be seen in the cultural landscapes of urban areas In Rio de Janeiro, building height restrictions resulted in a waterfront lined with buildings of uniform height Most American cities have no height restrictions resulting in a jagged skyline Rio de Janeiro - control:  Rio de Janeiro - control NYC – no control:  NYC – no control Physical properties of boundaries :  Physical properties of boundaries Usually most visible where tight restrictions limit movement of people between neighboring countries Between the United States, nearly invisible in many places Even undefended borders are marked by boundary pillars and custom houses Physical properties of boundaries :  Physical properties of boundaries Relic boundaries can persist for hundreds or thousands of years Hadrian’s Wall in England — built by the Romans parallels the modern border between England and Scotland The Great Wall of China Physical properties of boundaries :  Physical properties of boundaries Urban boundaries mark street gang territories Use spray-painted graffiti to mark their “turf’ Gang core areas contain internally supportive graffiti Gang territories can be mapped The impress of central authority:  The impress of central authority Attempts to impose centralized government appear in many facets of the landscape Railroad and highway patterns focus on the national core area In Germany, the rail network developed before unification in 1871 resulting in no focal point The superhighway of autobahns, encouraged by Hitler, tied the various parts of the Reich to Berlin and the Ruhr industrial district Brasilia, Brazil:  Brasilia, Brazil This is the Congresso Nacional of Brasilia, Brazil’s monumental planned capital built in 1960. Brasilia was intended to open up the sparsely settled interior, decentralize population away from Brasilia, Brazil:  Brasilia, Brazil the coast, and symbolize aspirations of development, modernization, and frontier conquest. The dome houses the Senate while the more open bowl houses the Chamber of Deputies, Brasilia, Brazil:  Brasilia, Brazil perhaps symbolizing relative degrees of access. The office towers were deliberately placed so that the sun rises between them on April 21st, inauguration day. The impress of central authority:  The impress of central authority Military landscapes directly linked a country’s central authority’s defense Often concentrated in border districts Can result in sizable areas being cleared of permanent inhabitants Provided space for defensive installations and maneuvers Stable countries such as the United States permit display of provincial borders Unstable countries often suppress visible sign of provincial borders National iconography on the landscape:  National iconography on the landscape The cultural landscape is rich in symbolism visual metaphor Political messages are often conveyed through symbolism In the United States flags and eagles convey clear messages Statues and monuments are important parts of the political landscape National iconography on the landscape:  National iconography on the landscape Sites of heroic resistances against invaders prompt feelings of nationalism Some geographers feel iconography derives from an elite, dominant group within a country Purpose is to legitimize or justify power and control Often represents only one side of an issue Example-Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota Seneca Falls, New York:  Seneca Falls, New York Seneca Falls, founded in 1831, is known as the birthplace of women’s rights because political activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Harriet Tubman of underground railroad fame lived and worked here. Seneca Falls, New York:  Seneca Falls, New York In 1848, Stanton and others organized the First Women’s Rights Convention at which the foundation for the suffrage movement was laid. Seneca Falls, New York:  Seneca Falls, New York The Hall of Fame was founded in 1969 and opened in this historic bank in 1979. Classical architecture was traditional for banks, lending an aura of authenticity and trustworthiness. Rome:  Rome The Arch of Titus was the first triumphal arch. It was built in 81 AD by Emperor Domitian to celebrate his son Titus’ conquest of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Rome:  Rome A triumphal procession carrying the spoils from the Temple of Solomon is depicted on the interior of the arch. Roman armies would depart the city marching through the arch and upon return Rome:  Rome from battle, stand their bloodied spears against it as a symbol of glorious victory. This arch became the model for others world wide and they can be found in most of the world’s capitals from Paris to New Delhi. Summary:  Summary Political Culture Regions Independent Countries territoriality boundaries centrifugal and centripetal forces Supranational Political Bodies Electoral Geography Summary:  Summary Political Diffusion Country Building as Diffusion Diffusion of Insurgencies and Innovations Summary:  Summary Political Ecology Folk Fortresses The Heartland Theory Halford Mackinder Warfare and Environmental Destruction Summary:  Summary Politico-Cultural Integration The Nation-State The Multinational Country Ethnic Separatism The Cleavage Model Political Imprint on Economic Geography Summary:  Summary Political Landscapes Imprint on the Legal Code border landscapes Physical Properties of Boundaries The Impress of Central Authority National Iconography on the Landscape

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