Published on March 14, 2008
Slide1: Polycentrism in Europe Simin Davoudi Professor of Planning and Environment Director of CUDEM Leeds Metropolitan University European Spatial Development Perspective: European Spatial Development Perspective The ESDP 1991 Committee of Spatial Development Potsdam Outline : Outline Unpack the concept of polycentricity Trace its origin Clarify its multiple interpretations at various spatial scales Examine its meaning in the ESDP Polycentrism and Multiple Interpretations: Polycentrism and Multiple Interpretations A strategic spatial planning tool A specific form of urban structure A socio-economic policy goal A ‘place-marketing’ image Polycentrism at Multiple Spatial Scales: Polycentrism at Multiple Spatial Scales Intra-urban scale (or internal city structure) Inter-urban (or intra-regional) scale Inter-regional (or intra-European) scale Intra-Urban Scale: Intra-Urban Scale Cities continue to grow outwards Their growth patterns are conceptualised by: Monocentric models Polycentric models Intra-Urban ScaleMonocentric Model: Intra-Urban Scale Monocentric Model This model describes the city as a circular residential area surrounding a central business district in which all jobs are located. (Ernest Burgess, 1925) The Future of Urban Forms : The Future of Urban Forms Kevin Lynch, 1961 The Pattern of Metropolis Urban Star Core City Urban Galaxy …….. The Future of Urban Forms: The Future of Urban Forms Catherine Wurster, 1963: … the Future of Urban Complex Constellation of diversified and integrated cities The Demise of Monocentricity: The Demise of Monocentricity The monocentric model, fit for the ideal 19th C. city, became irrelevant in the face of: Rapid decentralisation of economic activities Increased mobility through new transport technologies Multiplicity of travel patterns and complex cross-commuting Changes in household structure and lifestyle Intra-Urban ScalePolycentric Model: Intra-Urban Scale Polycentric Model The shift to a polycentric pattern of urban growth has been driven by: The changing economic relationships within and between firms The significance of agglomeration economies in distribution of employment and population The tendency of firms to cluster when spatial transactional costs are high The Polycentric City: The Polycentric City Polycentric city consists of a centre and a number of concentrated sub-centres with high population and employment density Polycentricity versus Dispersion : Polycentricity versus Dispersion Polycentric city: An organised system of sub-centres Dispersed city: An unorganised urban sprawl Halt in Decentralisation: Halt in Decentralisation Break up in the pattern of decentralisation due to: A return to urban living The sustainability ‘pull’ The pro-active urban policy measures It is happening in America, too!: It is happening in America, too! Not all population movements are centrifugal Inter-Urban Scale: Inter-Urban Scale Polycentric urban region (PUR): a region with three or more historically and politically separate cities with little hierarchical ranking in a reasonable proximity and with functional interconnections European Examples of PUR: European Examples of PUR Flemish Diamond in Flanders, Belgium Brussels Leuven Antwerp Ghent European Examples of PUR: European Examples of PUR Rhine-Ruhr in Germany Dortmund Essen Dusseldorf Cologne Bonn European Examples of PUR: European Examples of PUR Padua-Treviso-Venice Area in Northern Italy Other Examples of PUR: Other Examples of PUR Kansai in Japan Osaka Kyoto Kobe Archetypical Example of PUR: Archetypical Example of PUR Randstad in Holland Amsterdam Utrecht The Hague Rotterdam And, the Green Heart Problems of Definition: Problems of Definition A PUR is a region with three or more cities in a reasonable proximity and with functional interconnection What is a reasonable proximity? How do we measure functional interconnection? What is a reasonable proximity?: What is a reasonable proximity? One hour (Geddes, 1915) 40 minutes (Blumenfeld, 1971) Half an hour (Batten, 1995) ??? How do we measure functional interconnection?: How do we measure functional interconnection? A common criterion is the labour market flows based on journey-to-work statistics But, what about: Non-work trip-generation activities Other flows such as: resources, goods and information? Capturing Complex Interrelationships: Capturing Complex Interrelationships ‘Western Wedge’ of London London – Berkshire area Inter-Regional Scale: Inter-Regional Scale Megalopolis resulted “from the coalescence of a chain of metropolitan areas, each of which has grown around a substantial urban nucleus” (Gottmann, 1957) Inter-Regional Scale: Inter-Regional Scale Urban field “is a mosaic of different forms and micro-environments which co-exist within a common communication framework, a new scale of urban living … ” (Friedmann & Miller, 1965) Inter-Regional Scale: Inter-Regional Scale Ecumenopolis, or world city, comprises of interconnected settlements across the world. (Doxiadis, 1968) Is the time-space dimension shrinking? Inter-Regional Scale: Inter-Regional Scale BeSeTo Urban Corridor in East Asia: Beijing Seoul Tokyo The ESDP and the Intra-European Scale of Polycentricity : The ESDP and the Intra-European Scale of Polycentricity ESDP promotes polycentricity at the level of Europe as whole to achieve: Economic competitiveness Social cohesion EU Economic Competitiveness Agenda: EU Economic Competitiveness Agenda The ‘pentagon’: a single zone of global economic integration London, Paris, Milan, Munich and Hamburg 50% of GDP 40% of population 20% of area EU Social Cohesion Agenda: EU Social Cohesion Agenda Persistent regional disparities are set to grow EU territory is not a level playing field EU Core – Periphery Image : EU Core – Periphery Image European Megalopolis (Gottmann, 1976) Golden Triangle (Cheshire & Hay, 1989) The Blue Banana (Brunet, 1989) The pentagon (ESDP, 1999) Polycentricity as a Normative Agenda: Polycentricity as a Normative Agenda The ESDP promotes polycentrism to: Challenge the polarised image of Europe Make the EU: Economically more competitive Socially and spatially more equitable Polycentricity as a Normative Agenda: Polycentricity as a Normative Agenda A Bunch of Grapes (Kunzmann & Wegener, 1991) Challenges to the ESDP’s Promotion of Polycentricity : Challenges to the ESDP’s Promotion of Polycentricity Is a zero-sum game achievable? What kind of policies are most effective? What is to be done? Is the PUR a panacea for economic competitiveness? Can a PUR be created ‘artificially’? Polycentricity?: Polycentricity? Polycentricity started as a tentative notion, a provisional working model. But, all too swiftly, it has become hardened into an idée fixe. It now appears everywhere. Instead of being used as an aid to describe an existing or merging reality, it is coming to determine that reality.