Published on March 20, 2014
B Y M I S S WA L L I S POETRY TERMS
ALLITERATION • Definition: the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
ASSONANCE & CONSONANCE • Definitions: • Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds in words near one another Example: It seems I keep seeing memes! • Consonance: repetition of consonant sounds at the end of words near one another Example: The dove moved above the waves.
RHYME: END RHYME • Definition: End rhyme is the most common form of rhyme. The rhyming words end each line. Example: It runs through the reeds And away it proceeds, Through meadow and glade, In sun and in shade.
RHYME: INTERNAL RHYME • Definition: a rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next Example: “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. “ (“The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe)
ENJAMBMENT • Definition: The continuation of a phrase/sentence beyond the end of a line of verse Example: “A thing of beauty is a joy forever: Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness but still will keep A bower quiet for us, and asleep Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.” (“Endymion” by John Keats)
FOOT • Definition: The metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured. • Iambic foot: the more popular foot used in poetry. This is one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable such as in the word “away.” • Trochaic foot: the less common foot found in poetry. One stressed syllable followed by one unstressed foot such as in the word “lovely.”
METER • Definition: When a rhythmic pattern of stresses recurs in a poem • Metrical patterns are determined by the type and number of feet in a line of verse.
HYPERBOLE (NOT HYPER BOWL) • Definition: an exaggeration or overstatement
IMAGERY • Definition: an appeal to the senses (you can see it, hear it, feel it, taste it, smell it) Example: This is an excerpt from “Preludes,” an imagery poem by T. S. Eliot. You can almost see and hear the horse steaming and stamping and smell the steaks: The winter evening settles down With smell of steaks in passageways. Six o'clock. The burnt-out ends of smoky days. And now a gusty shower wraps The grimy scraps Of withered leaves about your feet And newspapers from vacant lots; The showers beat On broken blinds and chimney-pots, And at the corner of the street A lonely cab-horse steams and stamps. And then the lighting of the lamps.
METAPHOR • Definition: Metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, without using the word like or as.
SIMILE • Definition: a figurative comparison using like or as
ONOMATOPOEIA • Definition: the use of a word that resembles the sound it denotes.
PERSONIFICATION • Definition: giving human qualities to animals or inanimate objects
STANZA • Definition: In poetry, stanza refers to a grouping of lines, set off by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme. (A “paragraph” of poetry) • Two line stanza: couplet • Three line stanza: tercet • Four line stanza: quatrain • Five line stanza: cinquain/quintain/quintet • Six line stanza: sextet/sixain/hexastich/sestet • Seven line stanza: septet • Eight line stanza: octave/octet
KINDS OF POETRY: CONCRETE • Concrete Poem: the poem looks like its subject Example:
KINDS OF POETRY: DIAMANTE • Definition: a single unrhymed and untitled stanza with a visual structure shaped like a diamond
KINDS OF POETRY • Ballad: A form of narrative poetry(tells a story) • Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter • Epic: A long narrative poem, told in a formal, elevated style, that focuses on a serious subject and chronicles heroic deeds and events important to a culture or nation. • Free Verse: poetry that is written without proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter.
KINDS OF POETRY • Lyric poetry: A type of brief poem that expresses the personal emotions and thoughts of a single speaker (Other kinds of poetry can come in lyrical form. For example, a lyrical haiku, a lyrical ode, a lyrical elegy, etc…) Elegy: A mournful, contemplative lyric poem written to commemorate someone who is dead Ode: A lyrical poem that addresses a particular subject
KINDS OF POETRY: HAIKU • Definition: A Japanese form of poetry written in three lines with the syllables 5-7-5.
LIMERICK • Definition: a humorous, frequently bawdy, verse of three long and two short lines rhyming aabba
SONNET • Definition: A fixed form of lyric poetry that consists of fourteen lines, usually written in iambic pentameter. • Italian Sonnet • abba abba (the remaining six lines are flexible c,d,e) • Shakespearean (or English) sonnet • abab cdcd efef gg
NOT ALL POETRY IS DIFFICULT!
…AND IT’S NOT ALL EMO EITHER!
IT CAN BE WITTY!
SO DON’T JUDGE!
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