pmi quality notes

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Information about pmi quality notes

Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Monica


PMI PMP Exam Prep PMI Mile High Chapter North Area Study Group:  PMI PMP Exam Prep PMI Mile High Chapter North Area Study Group Quality Presentation Prepared by Denise Robertson 8 March 2003 Quality Definitions:  Quality Definitions Quality: conformance to requirements and fitness of use Quality Management: The processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Philosophy: Gold plating is bad; prevention over inspection is good Quality Characteristics:  Quality Characteristics Grade vs. Quality Grade: meets spec requirements Quality: behaves as expected Prevention vs. Inspection Management Responsibility Processes Customer Satisfaction Keep customer informed Stick to Requirements Quality Processes:  Quality Processes Quality Planning Quality standards and methods to meet them Planning Quality Assurance Improvements, audits, measurement comparisons, considering standards appropriateness Executing Quality Control Measuring/testing errors, measuring schedule performance, comparing results to standard Controlling Quality Planning Tools:  Quality Planning Tools Standards Benchmarking (past analysis) Benefit/Cost Analysis (BCI) Flowchart (future analysis) Design of Experiments (what if?) Cost of Quality (costs of conformance & non-conformance) Fishbone Diagram (also used in QC) Quality Assurance Tools:  Quality Assurance Tools Evaluation against standards on regular basis Re-evaluation of standards, methods, and procedures Quality Audit: structured review of quality activities that identifies lessons learned Quality Control Tools:  Quality Control Tools Inspection Pareto Diagram Fishbone Diagram Checklists Statistical Sampling Control Charts Flow charting (also used in Quality Planning) Trend Analysis Quality Techniques:  Quality Techniques Continuous Improvement (Kaizen) Just in Time (JIT) Total Quality Management (TQM) Quality Researchers:  Quality Researchers Optimal Quality and Responsibility:  Optimal Quality and Responsibility Marginal Analysis Optimal quality is reached at point where incremental value from improvement = incremental cost to secure it. Responsibility for Quality Senior management is responsible for organizational quality PM has ultimate responsibility for quality of product of project Each team member is responsible for self inspection Statistical Terms:  Statistical Terms Standard Deviation:  Standard Deviation Distance from Mean in a Normal Curve 1 standard deviation = 1 sigma (P – O) / 6 PERT formula for standard deviation where P is pessimistic estimate and O is optimistic estimate Sigma:  Sigma Statistical Sampling Quality Control Chart:  Statistical Sampling Quality Control Chart Graphic display of results, over time, of a process… used to determine if the process is “in control.” To create a control chart: Samples are taken Variables are measured Attributes are found and plotted on chart Monitoring Project Results:  Monitoring Project Results Variable Anything measured Attribute Binary value, either right or wrong Probability Likelihood event will occur, usually expressed as % Control Chart Features:  Control Chart Features Control Limits Acceptable range of variation of a process often shown as 2 dashed lines on chart Upper and Lower Control Limits are determined by organization’s sigma quality standard Specification Limits Contractual requirements for performance and quality Not calculated based on control chart Outside chart control limits if project can meet Inside chart control limits if project cannot meet Out of Control:  Out of Control Out of Control Lack of consistency or predictability in process. When data point falls outside upper or lower control limit When non-random data points are still within upper and lower control limits, such as Rule of Seven Rule of Seven:  Rule of Seven Heuristic referring to non-random data points grouped together in a series that total 7 on one side of mean. Assignable Cause is a data point or Rule of Seven that requires investigation to determine cause of variation. Cost of Quality:  Cost of Quality

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