Plumbing in Architecture

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Information about Plumbing in Architecture

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: PinkDomino



Study of Plumbing in Architecture with focus on 2 case studies

Design Seminar: Plumbing 1. 2. Sneha Nagarajan (10110058) Srishti Shubh (10110060)

What is Plumbing? The art and science of creating and maintaining sanitary conditions in buildings Or The art and science of installing, repairing and servicing of pipes, fixtures and appurtenances necessary for bringing in water supply, distributing it within and removing the liquid and water-borne wastes It includes fixtures and fixture traps; soil and waste pipes; vent pipes; building drain and building sewer; storm drainage pipes, their devices, appurtenances and connections to all within or adjacent to the building Plumbing has been a part of the human race since the dawn of human civilization. Some civilizations saw very sophisticated systems for their time while the services declined marginally during Earliest plumbing arrangements were unearthed in the Indus Valley Civilization almost 5500years old Another civilization with highly developed plumbing system was the Egyptian civilization and the Romans. Aqueducts were constructed to carry water from sources to houses. Extensive underground sewage systems. Public baths. Sanitary systems declined after the Romans and AD476 and only around the 1500’s to 1800’s were concerns raised for better sanitary systems!

Indus Valley Civilization: Drainage System

Roman Bath: Thermae

Aqueducts Roman Lead Pipes: With a folded seam

The Basic Plumbing Components of any building: 1. 2. 3. 4. Water supply distributing pipes Fixture and fixture traps Soil, waste and vent pipes Storm water drainage

NBC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS for design considerations: •Smooth joints •Avoid noise transmission •Avoid formation of air locks •Avoid unsightly arrangement •Economy in labour and materials •No piping under wastewater pipes •Gradual size and direction changes •Maximum rate of discharge required •Water-tight pipes and pipe-connections •No back-flow towards the source of supply •Wholesome water supply for drinking and culinary purposes •No direct connection of boilers or hot machinery, use feed cistern •No cross-connection between pure and contaminated water pipes •Sufficient strength of pipes underground or under traffic loads or frost •Maintain definite air gap in all appliances (minimum 15 cm or twice pipe bore for storage cisterns) •Corrosion protection measures in corrosive environments (e.g. corrosive soils, proximity to electric cables), e.g. exterior CI tubing

Supply System

3.1.1 Potable Water All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy, or use shall be provided with supply of potable water. This water supply shall not be connected with unsafe water resources, nor shall it be subject to the hazards of backflow. 3.1.2 Water Provision Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be provided with water in sufficient volume and at pressures adequate to enable them to function properly and without undue noise under normal conditions of use. There should beat least a residual head of 0.018 N/mm2 at the consumer‘s tap. NOTE—The residual head shall be taken at the highest farthest outlets in the building. 3.1.14 Maintenance Plumbing systems shall be maintained in a safe and serviceable condition. 3.1.15 Accessibility All plumbing fixtures shall be so installed with regard to spacing as to be accessible for their intended use and for cleaning. All doors, windows and any other device needing access within the toilet shall be so located that they have proper access.

4.1.1 Water Supply for Residences A minimum of 70 to 100 litres per head per day may be considered adequate for domestic needs of urban communities, apart from non-domestic needs as flushing requirements. As a general rule the following rates per capita per day may be considered minimum for domestic and non-domestic needs: NOTE— The value of water supply given as 150 to 200 litres per head per day maybe reduced to 135litresper head per day for houses for Lower Income Groups (LIG) and Economically Weaker Section of Society(EWS),depending upon prevailing conditions. For residential buildings, the requirements of water shall be based on the actual number of occupants; where this information is not available, the number of occupants for each residential unit may be based on a family of five. For assessing the population in other occupants, reference may be made to Part 4 ‗Fire and Life Safety‘. Out of the 150 to 200 litres per head per day, 45 litres per head per day may be taken for flushing requirements and the remaining quantity for other domestic purposes.

4.1.2 Water Supply for Buildings Other than Residences The NBC states several codes for plumbing needs of buildings of various other uses. Refer Section 4.1 of part9 for the same. 4.1.4 Water Supply for Fire Fighting Purposes The Authority shall make provision to meet the water supply requirements for fire fighting in the City/area, depending on the population density and types of occupancy. Provision shall be made by the owner of the building for water supply requirements for fire fighting purposes within the building, depending upon the height and occupancy of the building, in conformity with the requirements laid down in Part 4 ‗Fire and Life Safety‘. The requirements regarding water supply in storage tanks, capacity of fue pumps, arrangements of wet riser-cum-downcomer and wet riser installations for buildings above 15 m in height, depending upon the occupancy use, shall

Water Sources and Quality: The NBC guidelines lay out the rules to ensure water quality at the various stages of supply and consumption and disposal. Potable or for other purposes. Fresh water sources: lakes/rivers. Waste water reclamation 4.4 Storage of Water 4.4.1 In a building, provision is required to be made for storage of water for the following reasons: a) to provide against interruptions of the supply caused by repairs to mains, etc; b) to reduce the maximum rate of demand on the mains; c) to tide over periods of intermittent supply; and d) to maintain a storage for the fire fighting requirement of the building (see Part 4 ‗Fire and Life Safety‘ ). There are clear guidelines as to what material is to be used for various uses and their design considerations. While designing we need to keep in mind the design of 1. Manholes 2. Catch rings and ladders 3. Overflow pipes 4. Vent pipes 5. Scour pipes 6. Connections to these 7. Tanks

Calculation of Drain/Trap Diameter: 4.4.10 The quantity of water to be stored shall be calculated taking into account the following factors: a) hours of supply at sufficiently high pressure to fill up the overhead storage tanks; b) frequency of replenishment of overhead tanks, during the 24 h; c) rate and regularity of supply; and d) consequences of exhausting storage particularly in case of public buildings like hospitals.

PLUMBING WATER SUPPLY EXERCISE 12 fixture units total fixture units = 30 = 20 gpm longest length = 90' meter pressure loss = 9 psi rise pressure loss = 4.33 psi psi fu 12 9 gpm total pressure loss = 28.33 psi flow 20 fu 30 fu Available pressure of 60 psi, minus 28.33 pressure loss = 31.67 psi to push the water through the system. 14 gpm 31.67' x 100 = 23.46 psi / 100' 135' Limit the velocity of water through the piping to no faster than 8 feet / sec. Using the pipe size chart 2 make a table that shows the max. gpm for each pipe size: pipe dia. max gpm 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2" 3 1/2 10 18 28 44 78 Water Meter 30 fu flow system rises 10' The available pressure in psi per 100' gpm 8 fu 7 gpm flow 6' 20 gpm flow 6' fixture pressure loss = 15 System is predominately flush TANKS 8 10 fu 10 fixture units flow 20 gpm Available pressure = 60 p.s.i. 50' 12' 8' Measured length of system (origin to farthest fixture) = 90' Calculated length (measured length + 1/2 measured length) = 90 + 45 = 135' 10' flow 8 fixture units

4.7 Distribution Systems in Multi-Storeyed Buildings 4.7.1 There are four basic methods of distribution of water to a multistoreyed buildings. 1. Direct supply from mains to ablutionary taps and kitchen with WCs and urinals supplied by overhead tanks. 2. Direct Pumping Systems 3. Hydro-Pneumatic Systems 4. Overhead Tanks Distribution 4.7.2 Direct Supply System This system is adopted when adequate pressure is available round the clock at the topmost floor. With limited pressure available in most city mains, water from direct supply is normally not available above two or three floors. 4.7.3 Direct Pumping Water is pumped directly into the distribution system without the aid of any overhead tank, except for flushing purposes. The pumps are controlled by a pressure switch installed on the line.

4.7.4 HydroPneumatic Systems Hydro-pneumatic system is a variation of direct pumping system. An air-tight pressure vessel is installed on the line to regulate the operation of the pumps. The vessel capacity shall be based on the cut-in and cut-out pressure of the pumping system depending upon allowable start/stops of the pumping system. The system shall have reliable power supply to avoid breakdown in the water supply.

4.7.5 over-head Tank Distribution This is the most common of the distribution systems adopted by various type of buildings. The system comprises pumping water to one or more overhead tanks placed at the top most location of the hydraulic zone. Water collected in the overhead tank is distributed to the various parts of the building by a set of pipes located generally on the terrace.

Plumbing Fittings

water flow water flow water flow 90 degree standard ell water flow water flow standard coupling inline tee 90 degree side tee 45 degree standard ell water flow valve of various types STANDARD PIPE FITTINGS ( FRINGES )


Plumbing Fixtures

3.1.5 Plumbing Fixtures It is recommended that each family dwelling unit should have at least one water closet, one lavatory, one kitchen wash place or a sink, and one bathing wash place or shower to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene. 3.1.8 Fixture Traps and Vent Pipes Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a liquid seal trap, Trap seals shall be maintained to prevent sewer gas, other potentially dangerous or noxious fumes, or vermin from entering the building. Further, the drainage system shall be designed to provide an adequate circulation of air in all pipes with no danger of siphonage, aspiration, or forcing of trap seals under conditions of ordinary use by providing vent pipes throughout the system.

Drainage System

3.1.6 Drainage System The drainage system shall be designed, installed and maintained to guard against fouling, deposit of solids and clogging and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned. 3.1.9 Foul Air Exhaust Each vent terminal shall extend to the outer air and be so installed as to minimize the possibilities of clogging and the return of foul air to the building, as it conveys potentially noxious or explosive gases to the outside atmosphere. All vent pipes shall be provided with a cowl.

Drainage Installation • Soil and Waste Drainage System - Two-pipe Ventilated Gravity System - U/G Petrol Interceptor for Carpark - Discharge to Public Foul Water System • Storm Water Drainage System - Rain Water Outlet at Roof, Balcony & Canopy - Discharge to Public Storm Water System







POSITIVES: • Intelligent placing of Ducts and Wet areas to facilitate easy outflow and maintenance. • Separation of Toilet and Kitchen sewage lines for separate drain out into respective pipelines. • Separate Water Supply pipes for Domestic and Flushing purposes. • Rainwater pipes are place in appropriate corners, having maximum catchment area, reducing number of pipes required. • New-age flush and tap systems used. • Pipework hidden from plain view in elevation with the help of extruded Chajjas and Elevation Fins. • No overlap of Bathrooms with bedrooms or kitchen between levels. • Toilets ventilated into ducts, preventing escape of foul smell to Living areas. NEGATIVES: • • No provision for Hot water supply in Bathrooms and Kitchen. Door clearance for WCs not standard.

CITY OF MILWAUKEE CROSS CONNECTION PROGRAM Milwaukee is the largest city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. It is located on the south-western shore of Lake Michigan.

Map and Location of Milwaukee City

WHAT IS BACK FLOW? In water supply systems, water is normally maintained at a significant pressure to enable water to flow from the tap, shower etc. When pressure fails or is reduced, (as may happen if a water main bursts, pipes freeze or there is unexpectedly high demand on the water system), then such reduced pressure in the pipe may allow contaminated water from the ground, from storage or from other sources to be drawn up into the system.

WHAT IS CROSS CONNECTION? Cross-connections, are defined as actual or potential connections between a potable water supply and a non-potable source, where it is possible for a contaminant to enter the drinking water supply.

STATISTICS: • Approximately 15,800 commercial water accounts serve buildings in Milwaukee. • The Plumbing Inspectors developed a reference manual identifying the various types of cross connection configurations and the proper cross connection control devices to correct them. Typical Cross Connections: Apartments - Laundry Tub Faucets - Hose Faucets - Boilers Office Buildings - Boilers - Chillers - Soap Dispensers - Water Closets - Coffee Makers

Restaurants - Beverage Dispensers - Food Grinders - Steamer - Dishwasher - Glass Washer - Soap Dispenser - Hose and Spray Manufacturing Plants - Chemical Dispensers - Cooling Towers - Boilers - Hose Faucets - Equipment using Potable Water


Janitors Faucet

Laundry Tub Faucets

Hose and Spray

Hose and Spray

Fill Valve


Electric Boiler

Cooling Towers

Coffee Makers



Soap Dispenser

Commercial Dishwasher

Parts Washer

Chemical Dispenser

CORRECTIVE MEASURES APPLIED: • Hose thread vacuum breakers were installed. • A licensed plumber working under a permit is required for any other form of cross connection correction.

Hose Bibb

Hose Bibbs – Medical Whirlpool

Backflow Preventer

BUILDING SERVICES INSTALLATIONS Reliability Flexibility New Technology Design Intent Energy Efficiency Health & Safety Sustainability Maintainability

Sanitary Plumbing System Enclosed in Fire-Rated Service Duct Sanitary stack Cleaning Eye Service duct

Central Building Plan Unit 30.11.1999 Sanitary Plumbing over Bed / Living / Dining Rooms and Kitchen Common Error In buildings under Land Titles (Strata) Act, sanitary pipes are sited over bedrooms, living room, dining room or kitchen of the strata unit below. Clarification • Pipe leakage and maintenance work would pose nuisance conditions and inconvenience to owners of lower level strata units. • Sanitary pipes shall be routed away from such places. • Maintenance duct with access taken from common areas shall be provided if dry areas cannot be avoided.

Sanitary Plumbing over Bed / Living / Dining Rooms and Kitchen Details of Double Floor Slab / Maintenance Duct

Sanitary Plumbing over Water Tanks / Transformer / Switchgear Common Error • Sanitary pipes sited over water tanks, transformer and switchgear •Leaks from sanitary pipes could contaminate water tanks etc. Clarification • Sanitary pipes shall not be located over water tanks, transformer, switchgear or other places where it can cause health and safety hazards.

Sanitary Plumbing over Water Tanks / Transformer / Switchgear Water Tank Sanitary Pipe

Ventilation Stack Terminating at Roof Level Clarification Common Error Ventilation stack shall terminate at the highest roof level and shall Ventilation stacks terminate at be sited in common service areas outside private roof terraces / communal or private roof terrace gardens. / garden causing foul odour nuisance to residents. This will facilitate maintenance work and minimise inconvenience and nuisance to occupants. To avoid vent pipes terminating in the private roof terraces / gardens, the vent pipe may be offset and extended for termination at the highest point of the building or other suitable location that will not cause smell nuisance or health hazard to the occupants.

Design Considerations for Sewerage

Sewer Connection Common issue Can a development have more than one sewer connection? Clarification • In general, only one sewer connection is permitted per development. • This is to minimise • number of road openings • inconvenience to neighbouring properties when public sewer is located in adjacent property • disruption to sewerage system due to interruption of sewage flow

Sewer Connection Common Issue Can a new connection be provided for a development if the existing sewer is located in neighbouring property? Clarification • Existing sewer connection shall be reused whenever possible. • Where a new sewer connection is required because of development layout, it is necessary to obtain written consent from the owner of adjacent lot.

Sewer Connection Clarification • Builder shall pre-consult authorities for all subdivision cases. • This is to safeguard sewer connection for the sub-divided land parcels. • Existing drainline / sewer within the subdivided plots shall not be abandoned / diverted without written approval. Common Issue Sewer connection affected by subdivision of land

Energy Conservation • Locate hot water heater in conditioned space • Insulate hot water heater • Insulate exposed hot water pipes • Insulate cold water pipes with freezing potential • Place water pipes in interior walls, if possible • Use low-flow fixtures • Seal all wall fenestrations through which pipes run

―If I could do it all again, I'd be a plumber.‖ Albert Einstein was named an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union after publicly stating that he would become a plumber if he had to do it all over again!

References: 1. National Building Code 2. Daisariya Architects, Mumbai Pvt Ltd 3.


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