Published on June 13, 2019
1. Nigel Parry email@example.com 13 th June 2019
2. Maintenance Factors 13 th June 2019 ISO/CIE TS 22012:2018 (ISO TC 274) Light and Lighting – Maintenance Factor Determination – Way of Working. ILP LED Maintenance Factor Guidance Note.
3. The International Commission on IlluminationInternational Commission on IlluminationInternational Commission on IlluminationInternational Commission on Illumination - also known as the CIECIECIECIE from its French title, the Commission Internationale de lCommission Internationale de lCommission Internationale de lCommission Internationale de l´´´´EclairageEclairageEclairageEclairage - is devoted to worldwide cooperation and the exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of light and lighting, colour and vision, photobiology and image technology. With strong technical, scientific and cultural foundations, the CIE is an independent, non-profit organization that serves member countries on a voluntary basis. Since its inception in 1913191319131913, the CIE has become a professional organization and has been accepted as representing the best authority on the subject and as such is recognized by ISO as an international standardization body.
4. Division 1: Vision and Colour To study visual responses to light and to establish standards of response functions, models and procedures of specification relevant to photometry, colorimetry, colour rendering, visual performance and visual assessment of light and lighting. Division 2: Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation To study standard procedures for the evaluation of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, global radiation, and optical properties of materials and luminaires, as well as the optical properties and performance of physical detectors and other devices required for their evaluation. Division 3: Interior Environment and Lighting Design To study and evaluate visual factors which influence the satisfaction of the occupants of a building with their environment, and their interaction with thermal and acoustical aspects, and to provide guidance on relevant design criteria for both natural and man-made lighting; as well as to study design techniques, including relevant calculations, for the interior lighting of buildings; incorporating these findings and those of other CIE Divisions into lighting guides for interiors in general, for particular types of interiors and for specific problems in interior lighting practice. Division 4: Transportation and Exterior Applications To study and prepare guides for the design of exterior lighting and light signalling. Division 6: Photobiology and Photochemistry To study and evaluate the effects of optical radiation on biological and photochemical systems (exclusive of vision). Division 8: Image Technology To study procedures and prepare guides and standards for the optical, visual and metrological aspects of the communication, processing and reproduction of images, using all types of analogue and digital imaging devices, storage media and imaging media.
5. DIVISION 4: TRANSPORTATION AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONSDIVISION 4: TRANSPORTATION AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONSDIVISION 4: TRANSPORTATION AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONSDIVISION 4: TRANSPORTATION AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS CIE Division 4, one of the six Technical Divisions of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). Division Director Dionyz Gasparovsky Division Secretary Maurice Donners Division Editor Nigel Parry Associate Director Steve Fotios Associate Director Sermin Onaygil Associate Director Raoul Lorphevre 4-33 Discomfort Glare in Road Lighting 4-45 Performance Assessment Method for Vehicle Headlamps 4-47 Application of LED's in Transport Lighting and Signalling 4-50 Road Surface Characterization for Lighting Applications 4-51 Optimization of Road Lighting 4-52 Lighting for Pedestrians: New Empirical Data 4-53 Tunnel Lighting Evolution 4-54 Road Lighting for Ageing Drivers 4-55 Guide for the Lighting of Sport Events for Colour Television and Film Systems 4-56 Masterplanning Urban Lighting 4-57 Guide for Sports Lighting 4-58 Obtrusive Light from Colourful and Dynamic Lighting and its Limitation 4-59 Guide for Lighting Urban Elements JTC 11 (CIE-ISO) Light and Lighting – Maintenance factor – Way of working JTC 13 (D4/D3) Depreciation and Maintenance of Lighting Systems
6. Maintenance Factors firstname.lastname@example.org 13 June 2019 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
7. Luminaire Maintenance Factors HID Lamps For lighting design, the overall maintenance factor for all Luminaires is derived from: • the lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF), • the lamp survival factor (LSF) and • the luminaire maintenance factor (LMF)
8. Lumen Depreciation ~20-50% Lamp Mortality ~50% Luminaire Maintenance Factors HID Lamps Typical Rated Life 8,000-24,000 hours
9. Lamp CCt Watts Lm/w Ra Lamp Life 70wSon 84 100 <25 20,000 35w SOX 45 140 0 12,000 70w MBI 84 76 60 8,000 36w CFL 38 80 80 12,000 100w T 100 12 99 1,000 Luminaire Maintenance Factors HID Lamps
10. Maintenance Factors email@example.com 13 June 2019 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) light sources
11. Initial/Early guidance was risk adverse and proposed for LED luminaires we need to use different parameters to establish a meaningful Maintenance Factor for Road Lighting designs. Thus LLMF and LSF shall be replaced with Lx, By, Cy and Fy where: Luminaire Maintenance Factors • Lx = lumen depreciation for a set period or ‘rated/useful life’ (50,000,84,000, 100,000 hours) • By = the number of burning hours at which a given percentile of LED luminaires cannot meet the lumen maintenance factor x. • Cy = The abrupt light output degradation of a LED luminaire Cy (equivalent to a lamp failure • Fy = Failure Fraction - The failure rate over the rated life is defined as the failure fraction (Fy) where y is the percentage of LEDs that will have failed at the end of rated life.
12. • To allow comparison between manufacturers the same useful life should be provided for each luminaire. This useful life could be at 84,000hours • A manufacturer will declare values for Useful Life and the maintenance factor x at a specified ambient temperature. • For example, L80B10 (50 000 h) at 25 °C indicates that after an operating time of 50 000 h, 80% of the initial luminous flux will be emitted for a luminaire operating in an ambient of 25 °C. Using this example, the LED lumen maintenance factor is 0.8 at 50 000 h. The gradual loss of light is a specific characteristic of a luminaire and cannot be assumed from a knowledge of the performance of its components. Luminaire Maintenance Factors Design Example:
13. Luminaire Maintenance Factors Design Example:
14. Maintenance Factors firstname.lastname@example.org 13 June 2019 New Guidance CIE
15. TS22012:2018 • Background information with respect to the principles of the maintenance factor and the relevant parameters for indoor and outdoor applications. • A detailed way of working on how to apply the maintenance factor determination method (as described in CIE 154:2003 and CIE 097:2005) for outdoor and indoor lighting designs using the technologies available in the market. • Explanation and examples on how to apply the maintenance factor and how to ensure proper operation over time corresponding to the determined values.
16. Maintenance factor determinationMaintenance factor determinationMaintenance factor determinationMaintenance factor determination Basic description of the methodBasic description of the methodBasic description of the methodBasic description of the method The maintenance factor fm is determined using the formula: fm =fLF∙fS∙fLM∙fSM where fLF is the luminous flux factor fS is the survival factor fLM is the luminaire maintenance factor fSM is the surface maintenance factor
17. To Note: In some cases the depreciation values will be presented as the median useful life, Lx, or the useful life ‘Lx,By’ value. • In both cases, only the x value of the Lx value is relevant for the luminous flux factor determination, the By element of ‘Lx,By’ is not taken into account in the fLF and consequently the fm determination (e.g. the luminous flux factor ݂ ൌ 0,80 after 50 000 h for both tL80,B50 =50 000 h and tL80,B10 = 50 000 h specifications). In some cases the depreciation values will be presented as ‘LxFy’ values. • The ‘LxFy’ is a (no longer in use) indication of lifetime not just taking into account depreciation, but takes into account multiple maintenance factor parameters (namely luminous flux depreciation and survival factor). As such, this value is not appropriate for the determination of the maintenance factor as it does not allow for separation of the luminous flux factor, fLF, and the survival factor, fS. .
18. Maintenance Factors email@example.com 13 June 2019 New Guidance ILP
19. Maintenance factors are applied to luminaire photometric data to ensure that at the end of scheme’s design life, in the worst-case scenario, the specified lighting level is still maintained. The maintenance factor applied for a luminaire should reflect how the light output reduces over time due to a variety of factors including lumen depreciation of the light source and the build-up of dirt on a luminaire. BS 5489-1: 2013 Annex C has long provided the recommended method for calculating maintenance factors in the UK. BS PD ISO/CIE TS 22012:2018 Light and lighting. Maintenance factor determination. Way of working is the latest best practice guidance on the determination of maintenance factors and provides much needed clarity on the methods of calculation and the reader is recommended to read that document in detail for further guidance. • TS 22012 recognises the weaknesses of the guidance in BS EN 62717/62722 relating to the LxBy parameter and provides a defines a new slightly revised parameter for determining maintenance factors, Lx,By making it clear that the median useful life, Lx (LxB50) should be used for determining maintenance factors. BS5489BS5489BS5489BS5489----1: 20131: 20131: 20131: 2013
20. Annex C sets out Informative guidance on calculating the Overall Maintenance Factor (OMF) as: OMF = LLMF x LSF x LMF where LLMF is Lamp [or LED] Lumen Maintenance Factor • representing the proportion of initial light output remaining at the median useful life; LSF is Lamp [or LED] Survival Factor • representing the proportion of LEDs in a luminaire that are expected to remain working at the median useful life; LMF is Luminaire Maintenance Factor • representing the dirt build-up and other deterioration of the optic surfaces/materials as BS 5489-1: 2013 Annex B, Table B1. BS5489BS5489BS5489BS5489----1: 20131: 20131: 20131: 2013 IMPORTANT: For tenders and lighting scheme comparisons, the overall maintenance factor for each luminaire make and model should be determined separately using manufacturers published LLMF and LSF value. The use of a “one size fits all” maintenance factor can underestimate the performance of well-designed lanterns and overstate the performance of luminaires using low quality components, skewing the results
21. Maintenance factors have an impact on the apparent efficiency of luminaires in a lighting scheme and particularly if assumptions are not applied consistently across all parameters. If using CLO, to ensure performance is as expected, the overall maintenance factor should be matched with the CLO factor to ensure that light levels are maintained at or above the required minimums and that power consumption at any time during the life of the product is sufficient to achieve the light levels. Finally, a single universal parameter for Overall Efficiency is proposed here for inclusion in Tender Specifications. This parameter allows direct comparison of the Overall Efficiency of different manufacturers’ luminaires at the end of scheme life including the effects of TM- 21 expected lumen depreciation, applied maintenance factors and the impact of Constant Light Output (CLO) on power consumption. This parameter bridges the gap between lighting standards, CLO and power consumption over life, improving the reliability of luminaire performance comparisons. MFMFMFMF –––– Constant Light Output (CLO)Constant Light Output (CLO)Constant Light Output (CLO)Constant Light Output (CLO)
22. Report includes useful information on LED module circuit architecture and testing flow chart
23. Maintenance Factors firstname.lastname@example.org 13 June 2019 LM80 TM21
24. LM80 – 08 Report
25. Maintenance Factors email@example.com 13 June 2019 Constant Light Output (CLO).
26. Luminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determination –––– SpecialSpecialSpecialSpecial case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO) Luminaires utilizing constant light output techniques constantly adjust the luminous flux based on the known or predicted depreciation behaviour of the light source to enable a constant luminous flux over time. This functionality needs to be captured in the determination of the luminous flux factor, fLF. The CLO feature is realized by initially dimming the light source to the predicted end-of- life luminous flux and steadily increasing the current (and as such the power consumption) over time to compensate for the depreciation in luminous flux due to ageing of the light source. • NOTE 1The increasing power consumption over time also has an effect on the electrical design and energy calculations for the installation, but is also a factor when comparing different CLO and non-CLO luminaires. • NOTE 2 In the context of this TS, CLO refers to the stand-alone feature based on known or predicted depreciation and does not include external input such as sensors. As such, it only applies to the luminous flux factor, fLF. • .
27. Luminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determination –––– SpecialSpecialSpecialSpecial case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO) Next Slide illustrates the behaviour of a CLO luminaire during operation, however in practice, there are two ways CLO luminaires specifications are provided by manufacturers. Depending on which of the two options is used, the luminous flux factor, fLF, shall be determined differently. The current known options are: • The standard (non-CLO) specifications are specified (in which case the CLO correction needs to be done in the maintenance factor using the luminous flux factor as specified); • The corrected luminous flux is given (in which case no CLO correction is needed as this is already represented in the corrected luminous flux, fLF = 1,00). If the replacement interval is longer than the given CLO lifetime, the manufacturer shall be consulted for the luminous flux factor, fLF, at the time of replacement. • .
28. Luminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determinationLuminous flux factor determination –––– SpecialSpecialSpecialSpecial case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO)case: Constant light output (CLO) 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 Y X Y B C A E FD 1 2 1 2 X a) Standard, non-CLO luminaire behaviour (simplified) b) CLO luminaire behaviour (simplified) Figure 1b) shows a simplified representation of the same luminaire as on left side, but with CLO functionality. Both power and luminous flux start at 20 % below their maximum output at 0 h (based on standard operation where total luminous flux depreciation is 20 % at the end of life - point D). Over time, the luminous flux is kept constant (line between point D and F), by increasing the power (line between point D and E). Note that at the end of life, both the standard and the CLO product have the same power consumption (B versus E) and same luminous flux (C versus F).
29. VW DieselGate
30. Does our Lighting industry have its own version VW DieselGate
31. IES files SP Ratio values Absolute Photometry = -1
32. Design using “Absolute” Photometry [TESTLAB] ORANGETEK TAIWAN BRANCH [ISSUEDATE] [MANUFAC] ORANGETEK [LUMINAIRE] 36S1x0571N2xxx [LAMP] OSRAM SQUARE CRI70 [SPR]1.78 TILT=NONE 1 -1 1.80197 181 37 1 2 0.19 0.19 0
33. Design using “Relative” Photometry [TESTLAB] ORANGETEK TAIWAN BRANCH [ISSUEDATE] [MANUFAC] ORANGETEK [LUMINAIRE] 36S1x0487N2xxx [LAMP] OSRAM SQUARE CRI70 [SPR]1.78 TILT=NONE 1 8810 1.804967 181 37 1 2 0.19 0.19 0
35. ILP - Overall Efficiency The Overall Efficiency will allow the typical performance of two luminaires to be compared including all relevant factors including initial LED flux, LED lumen depreciation, LED survival rates thermal management and optical efficiency. The Overall Efficiency shall be the Maintained Luminous Flux divided by the Average CLO Power Consumption of the complete luminaire determined as follows:
36. Overall Efficiency The maintained luminous flux and average CLO power consumption of the luminaire measured with the luminaire drive current greater than or equal to 700mA to each high-power LED or 100mA drive current to each mid-power LED regardless of the circuit architecture being series, parallel, ladder, or series parallel. The Average CLO Power consumption of the complete luminaire using the Elexon guidance on determining the CLO power, using a straight-line power increase between the initial power and end of life power, including driver losses.
37. Overall Efficiency Maintained luminaire flux shall be measured using the following procedure: • Initial Luminous Flux of the complete luminaire (including optics and any diffuser, bowl or glass front) shall be measured on a goniophotometer or an integrating sphere with the drive current set at the designated nominal value and the CLO factor set at 100% representing the end of life power consumption condition. • Testing shall be completed at ambient air temperature, Ta = 25˚C. • The Initial Luminous Flux multiplied by the BS 5489-1 (LLMF x LSF) elements of the maintenance factor to give the Maintained Luminous Flux at end of life. • LLMF based on IES TM-21 prediction using the nearest higher temperature curve to the LED reference (solder point or junction) temperature taken from the In-Situ Temperature Measurement Test at ambient air temperature, Ta=25˚C. • LSF taking account of both the number of LED failures expected during the life of the luminaire (use actual figures where available but no less than the greater of 3% of LEDs or one LED failure per LED module). • The effects of the LED module circuit architecture taken into account when assessing the impact of a single LED failure on the performance of a luminaire. This may result in adverse drive current distribution around the circuit, leading to sequential failure of further LEDs or in the worst case, the whole circuit board going out of light.
38. If not, then we need a WatchDog
39. 13 June 2019 Recommendations: The methodology in BS PD ISO/CIE TS 22012: 2019 is the best practice approach for calculation of maintenance factors for LED luminaires. The guidance in BS EN 62717 and BS EN 62722 is not suitable for the calculation of maintenance factors for any luminaires. Lx By should not be specified for the performance over the rated life of a luminaire as the methods in BS EN 62717 and BS EN 62722 relate to the performance at the end of the test period not the end of the rated luminaire life. The average/median useful life, Lx (Lx B50) shall be used for calculating maintenance factors. A standard method is presented for calculating the Overall Efficiency of the luminaire. This method outlines a testing and calculation method using standardised methods and co-ordinated operating parameters to ensure performance and overall efficiency claims for luminaires are reliable and should be adopted.
40. Maintenance Factors firstname.lastname@example.org 13 June 2019 Thanks for Listening
41. CLO 100,000hr rated life 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 110000 CLO L80 100k rated life power lumen 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 110000 CLO L92 100k rated life power lumen
42. Non CLO 100,000 hours 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 110000 Non CLO L92 power lumen 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 110000 Non -CLO L80 power lumen