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plotnik mod 18 adolescence and adulthood

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Information about plotnik mod 18 adolescence and adulthood
Education

Published on January 18, 2009

Author: cvmogol

Source: authorstream.com

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Module 18 : Module 18 Adolescence & Adulthood INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Adolescence: developmental period, lasting from about ages 12 to 18, during which many biological, cognitive, social, and personality traits change from childlike to adultlike PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR : PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Girls during puberty Puberty sets off physical growth starts 9.6 years begins 6-12 months before breast development Puberty triggers a physiological process: female sexual maturity Menarche first menstrual period (ovulation may have occurred) estrogen levels increase eightfold stimulates the development of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) : PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) menarche triggered by: hypothalamus releases hormone called kisspeptin (stimulates pituitary gland) pituitary gland produces hormones that travel through the bloodstream and stimulate the ovaries to greatly increase production of female hormones PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) : PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) Girls during puberty Estrogen one of the major female hormones levels increase at puberty eightfold stimulates both primary and secondary sexual characteristics Female secondary sexual characteristics triggered by increase of estrogen secretion includes growth of pubic hair, development of breasts, and widening of hips begins about 10.5 years continues for about 4 to 5 years PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) : PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) Boys during puberty Triggers an increase in physical growth (height) age 13-14 Male sexual maturity, includes growth of genital organs begins around age 11 and continues for approximately three years sperm production begins around the age12-14 Testosterone major male hormone stimulates growth of genital organs development of secondary sexual characteristics PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) : PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.) Male secondary characteristics triggered by increased secretion of testosterone; include growth of pubic hair, facial hair, development of muscles, and a change (deepening) in voice occur between 12 and 16 COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES Definition refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors Piaget’s Cognitive Stages: continued Stage 4: Formal Operations last of Piaget’s four cognitive stages extends from about age 12 through adulthood adolescents and adults develop the abilities to think about abstract or hypothetical concepts consider an issue from another’s viewpoint and solve cognitive problems in a logical way COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Brain development: reason and emotion Prefrontal cortex: executive functions located near the front of the brain Vulnerability around age 11 and continuing into young adult hood, the brain rewires and reorganizes especially vulnerable to traumatic adolescent experiences such as: physically or sexually abused, bullied, feeling lonely, rejected, or depressed, and abusing drugs COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Brain development: reason and emotion Prefrontal cortex: executive functions risk-taking behavior explains the adolescent’s brain (not being fully developed) allows for risky or irresponsible behavior feel invulnerable and have no fear of accidents COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Brain development: reason and emotion Limbic system: emotional behaviors teenagers have less control over their emotional and impulsive behaviors moody, emotional, and impulsive behaviors involved in a wide range of emotional behaviors, such as: being ecstatic over getting a date feeling depressed when failing a test getting angry when being insulted increased structure and function of the limbic system accounts for a teenager’s irritability as well as increase in aggression in adolescent males COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning Three levels of moral reasoning Self-Interest: Preconventional level lowest level of moral reasoning stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient stage 2, moral reasoning is guided most by satisfying one’s self-interest may involve bargaining COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning Three levels of moral reasoning Social approval: Conventional level represents an intermediate level of moral reasoning stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by conforming to the standards of others we value stage 4, moral reasoning is determined most by conforming to laws and society COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning Three levels of moral reasoning Abstract ideas: Postconventional level stage 5, moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and laws of society stage 6, has been omitted because few people have reached it COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Parenting Styles and Effects Different styles of parenting Authoritarian parents attempt to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children in accordance with a set standard of conduct absolute standard that comes from religious or respected authorities COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Parenting Styles and Effects Different styles of parenting Authoritative parents attempt to direct their children’s activities in a rational and intelligent way supportive, loving, committed, encourage verbal give and take, and discuss their rules and policies with their children COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Parenting Styles and Effects Different styles of parenting Permissive parents less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing and accepting attitude toward their children’s impulses, desires, and actions consult with their children about policy decisions, make few demands, and tend to use reason rather than direct power COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Beyond adolescence Changes in cognitive speed 20 to 40 cognitive skills remain relatively stable 40 to 80, general slowing of some cognitive processes late 50’s slowing in processing speed late 50’s slowing in perceptual speed late 50’s slowing of reaction time Changes in memory 40’s and continuing into old age, most people complain about not remembering things COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) : COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONT.) Resiliency as we age, brain becomes more flexible and adaptable connections to other brain cells multiply and form more meaningful connections as a result of life experiences left and right hemispheres become better integrated during middle age Emotions “positivity bias” pay less attention to negative information and more to positive information PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES Personality and social development refers to how a person develops a sense of self or self-identity, develops relationships with others, and develops the skills useful in social interactions Personal identity or self-identity refers to how we describe ourselves and includes our values, goals, traits, perceptions, interests, and motivations PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Development of self-esteem Self-esteem how much we like ourselves and how much we value our self-worth, importance, attractiveness, and social competence High self-esteem: develop and maintain high levels 60% of adolescents develop and maintain a strong sense of self-esteem through junior high school do well in school, develop rewarding friendships, participate in social activities, and are described as cheerful, assertive, emotionally warm, and unwilling to give up if frustrated PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Development of self-esteem Low self-esteem: develop and maintain low levels 15% of adolescents develop and maintain a chronically low self-esteem through junior high school have continuing personal and social problems (shy, lonely, depressed), which have been present for some time and contribute to low self-esteem Reversals-reverse levels 25% of adolescents show dramatic reversals in self-esteem, either from high to low or low to high PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Adulthood: Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage 5: Identity versus role confusion adolescence (12-20) adolescents need to leave behind the carefree, irresponsible, and impulsive behaviors of childhood and develop the more purposeful, planned, and responsible behaviors of adulthood if successful, develop a healthy and confident sense of identity if unsuccessful, experience role confusion results in having low-self esteem and becoming unstable or socially withdrawn PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Adulthood: Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage 6: Intimacy versus isolation young adulthood (20-40) young adulthood is a time for finding intimacy by developing loving and meaningful relationships can find intimacy in caring relationships negative side, without intimacy, we will have a painful feeling of isolation, and our relationships will be impersonal PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Adulthood: Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage 7: Generativity versus stagnation middle adulthood (40-65) time for helping the younger generation develop worthwhile lives positive: achieve generativity through raising our own children also by mentoring at work and helping others negative: lack of involvement leads to a feeling of stagnation, of having done nothing for the younger generation PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) : PERSONALITY & SOCIAL CHANGES (CONT.) Adulthood: Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage 8: Integrity versus despair late adulthood (65 and older) time for reflecting on and reviewing how we met previous challenges and lived our lives positive side: if we can look back and feel content about how we lived and what we accomplished, we will have a feeling of satisfaction or integrity negative side: if we reflect and see a series of crises, problems, and bad experiences, we will have a feeling of regret and despair GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP Definition: Gender Roles Gender roles traditional or stereotypic behaviors, attitudes, values, and personality traits that society says are how males and females are to think and behave U.S. gender roles female gender role includes being caring, insecure, helpful, emotional, social, and shy male gender role includes being arrogant, self-confident, aggressive, ambitious, not emotional, and dominant GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) Definition: Gender Roles Worldwide gender roles male gender roles include being ambitious, dominant, and independent female gender roles include being submissive, affectionate, and emotional differences in gender roles are clearly defined because society (family, peers, bosses, and colleagues) encourages and rewards behaviors and thoughts that match expected gender roles and discriminate against those that do not fit GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) Gender roles: development and function Evolutionary Psychology Theory emphasizes genetic and biological forces and says that current gender differences are a continuation of the behaviors that evolved from early men and women who adapted these different behaviors in their attempts to survive the problems of their time Social Role Theory emphasizes social and cultural influences and states that gender differences between males and females arise from different divisions of labor GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) Kinds of love Passionate love involves continuously thinking about the loved one and is accompanied by warm sexual feelings and powerful emotional reactions Companionate love involves having trusting and tender feelings for someone whose life is closely bound up with one’s own GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) : GENDER ROLES, LOVE & RELATIONSHIP (CONT.) Kinds of love Triangular theory of love Passion feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone Intimacy feeling close and connected to someone develops through sharing and communicating Commitment making a pledge to nourish the feelings of love and to actively maintain the relationship PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING : PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING Kinds of aging Normal aging gradual and natural slowing of our physical and psychological processes from middle through late adulthood Pathological aging caused by genetic defects, physiological problems, or diseases, such as Alzheimer’s Gerontology study of aging PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING (CONT.) : PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING (CONT.) Sexual changes with aging: women physical symptoms hot flashes, some sleep disturbance, and dryness of the vagina, which results from a decrease and eventual stoppage in the secretion of estrogen psychological symptoms moodiness, depression, anxiety, and anger sexual activities women who experienced sexual activity as fulfilling and enriching before menopause will likely continue to enjoy sexual activity after menopause and into late adulthood PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING (CONT.) : PHYSICAL CHANGES: AGING (CONT.) Sexual changes with aging: men Sexual responding older men may require more time and stimulation to have an erection healthy men usually have no difficulty in becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm Physiological problems Some men see their decreased sexual abilities as a threat to their self-esteem

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