plotnik mod 17 infancy and childhood

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Information about plotnik mod 17 infancy and childhood

Published on January 12, 2009

Author: cvmogol



Module 17 : Module 17 Infancy & Childhood INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Nature nurture question asks how much nature (genetic factors) and how much nurture (environmental factors) contribute to a person’s biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development Developmental psychologists Study a person’s biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development across the life span, from infancy through late adulthood PRENATAL INFLUENCES : PRENATAL INFLUENCES Prenatal period: three stages prenatal period extends from conception to birth and lasts about 266 days (9 months) Germinal stage conception or fertilization occurs if one of the millions of sperm penetrates the ovum’s outer membrane after penetration by the sperm, outer membrane changes and becomes impenetrable to the millions of remaining sperm fertilized ovum is called “zygote” PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Prenatal period: three stages Embryonic stage second stage of the prenatal period and spans the 2-8 weeks that follow conception during this stage, cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Prenatal period: three stages Fetal stage begins two months after conception and lasts until birth fetus develops vital organs, such as lungs, and physical characteristics that are distinctly human during embryonic and fetal stages, the developing organism is especially vulnerable to toxic agents protected by the placenta PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Placenta and teratogens Placenta organ that connects the blood supply of the mother to that of the fetus acts like a filter allows oxygen and nutrients to pass through while keeping out some toxic or harmful substances Teratogen any agent that can harm a developing fetus (cause deformities or brain damage) can be a disease, drug, or another environmental agent PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Birth defects and amniocentesis possible to test during fetal stage for a number of genetic errors Amniocentesis medical test done between weeks 14 and 20 of pregnancy involves inserting a long needle through the mother’s abdominal muscles into the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus fetal cells are analyzed in the fluid more than 450 genetic disorders can now be tested and identified PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Birth defects and amniocentesis Down Syndrome results from extra 21st chromosome causes abnormal physical traits fold of skin at the corner of each eye, wide tongue, heart defects abnormal brain development, resulting in degrees of mental retardation PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Drugs and prenatal development Drug use during pregnancy cocaine plus other drugs pregnant women using crack cocaine along with other drugs, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or opiates had: lower birth weight poor feeding habits greater risk for developing other psychological problems PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Drugs and prenatal development Drug use during pregnancy smoking and nicotine 13% (about) of pregnant women smoke increase the risk of: ADHD (three times the risk) low birth weight pre-term deliveries possible physical problems (cleft lip or palate) SIDS respiratory infections PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Drugs and prenatal development Drug use during pregnancy lead levels of lead in the blood system are associated with low IQ scores in children likelihood of antisocial acts such as, assaults, truancy, and disorderly conduct some lead sources, paint, gasoline, industry PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Drugs and prenatal development Drug use during pregnancy alcohol heavy drinking - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) FAS results from a mother drinking heavily during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks FAS results in: short stature, flattened nose, short eye openings, neurological changes, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, deficits in information processing, drug and alcohol abuse PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) : PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONT.) Drugs and prenatal development Drug use during pregnancy alcohol moderate drinking - Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) FAS results from a mother having 7-14 drinks per week during pregnancy FAE less severe than FAS FAE results in: Deficiencies in cognitive tasks, academic skills, fine motor speed and coordination NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES Genetic development program mother contributes 23 chromosomes and father contributes 23 chromosomes each child receives a unique genetic program brain growth genetic program (after birth) regulates how the brain develops makes thousands of connections between neurons NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Sensory development Faces newborns show a preference for their mother’s face over strangers faces the first few days after birth newborns recognize a person’s eyes 3-6 months infant can visually distinguish his or her mother’s face from strangers 3-4 years visual abilities are equal to those of an adult NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Sensory development Hearing one-month olds have very keen hearing can discriminate small sound vibrations 6 months, have developed the ability to make all sounds that are necessary to learn language Touch have well developed sense of touch will turn head when lightly touched on the cheek touch also elicits other reflexes such as grasping and sucking NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Sensory development Smell and taste infants at 1-day-old can discriminate a few odors such as citrus and floral six-week-old infants can smell the difference between their mother and a stranger newborns have an inborn preference for both sweet and salt and an inborn dislike of bitter-tasting things depth perception At 6 months, infants have developed depth perception NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Motor development refers to the stages of motor skills that all infants pass through as they acquire the muscular control necessary for making coordinated movements Proximodistal principle states that parts closer to the center of the infant’s body develop before parts farther away Cephalocaudal principle states that parts of the body closer to the head develop before parts closer to the feet NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Motor development Maturation refers to developmental changes that are genetically or biologically programmed rather than acquired through learning or life experiences Developmental norms refers to the average age at which children perform various kinds of skills or exhibit abilities or behaviors major milestones in infants’ motor development crawling, walking NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) : NEWBORNS’ ABILITIES (CONT.) Motor development environmental stimulation appropriate stimulation for development of the visual system, for learning to speak, for emotional development, and for motor development infants cannot perform complex cognitive, sensory or motor tasks, such as walking, talking, and reading until appropriate areas of their brains develop neural connections genetic program needs and interacts with environmental stimulation for the proper development of a child’s sensory, motor, and cognitive abilities EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Definition refers to the influence and interaction of genetic factors, brain changes, cognitive factors, coping abilities, and cultural factors in the development of emotional behaviors, expressions, thoughts and feelings Temperament and emotions refers to relatively stable and long lasting individual differences in mood and emotional behavior, which emerge early in childhood because these differences are largely influenced by genetic factors EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Temperament and emotions Easy babies happy and cheerful, regular sleeping and eating habits, adapted quickly to new situations Slow-to-warm-up babies more withdrawn, moody, and tend to take longer to adapt to new situations Difficult babies fussy, fearful of new situations, and more intense in their reactions EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Temperament and emotions No-single-category babies variety of traits and cannot be classified into one of the other three categories Genetic influence infants develop distinct temperaments very early, usually in the first 2-3 months of life these distinct temperaments occur largely because of genetic factors rather than learning experiences EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Temperament and emotions Environmental influence involves factors such as, family influence, poverty level, educational opportunities, and social class interact with and can change the infant’s initial temperament Attachment a close, fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parents or caregiver as a child shows closer attachment to parents, the child shows more distress when the parents temporarily leave EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Attachment Separation anxiety an infant’s distress whenever the infant’s parents leave Kinds of attachments Secure attachment characteristic for infants who use their parent as a safe home base from which they can wander off and explore their environments Insecure attachment characteristic of infants who avoid or show ambivalence or resistance toward their parent or caregiver EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Attachment Effects of attachment kind of attachment formed in infancy is thought to be associated with the success of future adult relationships Secure attachment associated with being better at resolving conflicts, being more trusting, enjoying relationships, and dealing better with stress and anxiety Insecure attachment associated with being dependent, having poor social relationships, and showing more anxiety in stressful settings COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s theory Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors Jean Piaget greatest impact on developmental psychology with cognitive development both biologist and psychologist COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Piaget’s theory Assimilation process by which a child uses old methods or experiences to deal with new situations Accommodation process by which a child changes old methods to deal with or adjust to new situations COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Refer to four different stages Sensorimotor stage Preoperational stage Concrete operations Formal operations COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Sensorimotor Stage birth to age 2 infants interact with and learn about their environments by relating their sensory experiences to their motor experiences object permanence develops over a period of 9 months refers to the understanding that objects or events continue to exist even if they can no longer be heard, touched or seen COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Preoperational Stage about age 2 to 7 years children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to think or talk about things that are not present Conservation refers to the fact that even though the shape of some object or substance is changed, the total amount remains the same Egocentric thinking refers to seeing and thinking of the world only from your own viewpoint and having difficulty appreciating someone else’s viewpoint COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Concrete Stage about age 7 to 11 years children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects (physically present) Conservation children gradually master the concept of conservation during the concrete operations stage Classification ability to classify items by color and size for example children still have difficulty figuring out relationships among objects that are not present or imaginary situations COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Formal Operations Stage about age 12 to adulthood adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner adolescents develop thinking and reasoning typical of adults ability to think in a logical, systematic, and abstract way is one of the major characteristics of the formal operations stage SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Social development refers to how a person develops a sense of self or a self-identity, develops relationships with others, and develops the kinds of social skills important in personal interactions Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Five different developmental periods: Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Oral stage early infancy to 18 months pleasure seeking is around the mouth sucking, chewing, and biting if fixated at this stage due to oral wishes being gratified too much or too little, could continue in adulthood seeking oral gratification SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Anal stage 1 and a half years to 3 years infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination if fixated, will continue behavior activities in either retention or elimination retention may take form of being neat, stingy, or rigid elimination may take form of being generous or messy SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Phallic stage 3 to 6 years (early childhood) pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals competes with parent of same sex for affections and pleasures of the parent of the opposite sex may result in feelings of inferiority for women and of having something to prove for men SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Latency stage 6 to puberty (middle to late childhood) child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activities, such as: developing social and intellectual skills puberty sexuality reappears SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Genital stage puberty to adulthood individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with members of the opposite sex successful resolution of the conflicts in the first three stages will lead to having energy to develop loving relationships and a healthy and mature personality SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages eight developmental periods during which an individual’s primary goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs Eight periods associated with issues of: Trust Autonomy Initiative Industry Identity Intimacy Generativity Ego integrity SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Trust versus Mistrust early infancy through the first year if parents are sensitive and responsive to needs of the child, basic trust will develop if parents neglect needs, the child may view the world as uncaring and learn to become mistrustful SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt late infancy-1 to 3 years battle of wills between parents’ wishes and child’s desires to do as he or she pleases if parents encourage: the child to explore, a sense of independence develops if parents disapprove or punish: the child’s explorations, he or she may develop a feeling that independence is bad and feel shame and doubt SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Initiative versus Guilt early childhood-3 to 5 years child develops a number of social skills that are expected to be used to meet challenges in the child’s world if parents encourage initiative: the child will develop the ability to plan and initiate new things if parents discourage initiative: the child may feel guilty or uncomfortable or may feel unable to plan the future SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Industry versus Inferiority middle and late childhood-5 to 12 years child needs to direct energy into working and completing tasks develops a feeling of industry if child has difficulty applying and completing work: then the child may develop a feeling of inferiority and incompetence SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Identity versus Role Confusion adolescence if child is successful making the change to adolescence, he or she will develop a sense of confidence and a positive identity if child is unsuccessful, he or she will experience role confusion results in having low self-esteem and becoming socially withdrawn SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory emphasizes the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development of social skills, interactions, and behaviors Resiliency refers to various personality, family, or environmental factors that compensate for increased life stresses so that expected problems do not develop SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Vulnerability refers to psychological or environmental difficulties that make children more at risk for developing later personality, behavioral, or social problems SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Gender identity refers to the individual’s subjective experience and feelings of being a female or male Gender roles traditional or stereotypic behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that parents, peers, and society expect us to have because we are male or female SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) : SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Social role theory emphasizes the influence of social and cognitive processes on how we interpret, organize, and use information Cognitive developmental theory children develop mental skills and interact with their environments, learn one set of rules for male behaviors and another set of rules for female behaviors Gender schemas sets of information and rules organized around how either a male or a female should think and behave

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