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Plataforma web y metodología para el desarrollo de sistemas sensibles al contexto basada en la colaboración entre programadores y expertos en el dominio

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Information about Plataforma web y metodología para el desarrollo de sistemas sensibles al...
Technology

Published on February 23, 2014

Author: damarcant

Source: slideshare.net

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PLATAFORMA WEB Y METODOLOGÍA PARA EL DESARROLLO DE SISTEMAS SENSIBLES AL CONTEXTO BASADA EN LA COLABORACIÓN ENTRE PROGRAMADORES Y EXPERTOS EN EL DOMINIO Candidato: David Martín del Canto Directores: Dr. Diego López de Ipiña y Dra. Aurkene Alzua Sorzabal Programa: Ingeniería Informática y Telecomunicación Facultad de Ingeniería Deusto – Bilbao, June 7th 2013

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 2

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 3

Introduction • Ubiquitous computing is a reality  Mobile environment More than four billion of mobile devices An open window to information and services at any time and place  Context is a key point for an optimal user experience  Context-Aware computing A style of computing in which situational and environmental information is used to anticipate immediate needs and proactively offer enriched, situation-aware content (Gartner Research) 4

Introduction: problem description • The development of context-aware systems is difficult  Technical challenges Gathering of context data (distributed and heterogeneous) Processing (context data model) Management (inference->situations) Adaptation to situations  Other challenges Identification, definition and parameterization of situations Dependent on the application domain Manufacturing Tourism Health care … 5

Introduction: problem description • Collaboration among domain experts and programmers  Domain experts can better identify the situations that can be relevant for the system to be developed • To promote this collaboration  Toolkits  To make easier the development of context-aware systems, even for people that do not have programming skills  Development methodologies  To guide the development process, focused in the collaboration between domain experts and programmers 6

Introduction: hypothesis It is possible to involve domain experts in the development life-cycle of context-aware systems in collaboration with programmers, by providing software toolkits and development methodologies adapted to people that do not have programming skills G1. Collaborative development methodology G2. Context-aware software platform 7

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 8

Theoretical framework: context • Definitions  Surroundings (Brown, 1996; Chen and Kotz, 2000)  Task or activity of the user (Hull et al., 1997)  Information to characterize the situation of an entity (Lieberman and Selker, 2000; Ye et al., 2011) • The most referenced definition “Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves” (Dey, 2001). 9

Theoretical framework: context “Context is any information that can be obtained and processed by a hardware or a software system, in order to identify the situation of an entity (living being, place, object) and adapt the system’s behaviour to that situation” 10

Theoretical framework: situation • Definitions  A situation is dependent on the context data and it can be considered as an abstraction of it (Yau and Huang, 2006; Dey 2001) “A situation is the state of the current and past context data at a certain region in space and a concrete interval in time” 11

Theoretical framework: context & situation E2 => S3 (t2) High-level context E1 => S1 (t1) E3 (S0) => S4 (t3) S2 c1 c3 c4 Low-level context c5 c6 c7 c8 c2 A1 A2 A3 Cooking A cook is located in the kitchen, he is using a knife and it is time to have lunch Entity Space Dependent situation Time 12

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 13

Situation-Driven Development: literature review • Software development methodologies  General development methodologies Waterfall, iterative, spiral (Green and DiCaterino, 1998).  Context Modelling Language (CML) (Henricksen and Indulska, 2006)  Context-Oriented Programming (COP) (Hirschfeld et al., 2008) There are no specific development methodologies to guide the implementation of context-aware systems in collaboration with domain experts 14

Situation-Driven Development: requirements • Requirements for the development methodology  Focused in the identification of situations (4W1H) (Oh et al., 2006) Which situation has to be identified? Who can be in such situation? Where can it be detected? When can it be detected? How can it be detected?  Collaborative methodology Domain experts and programmers 15

Situation-Driven Development • Collaborative development methodology  Five stages Analysis Configuration Development Validation Maintenance 16

Situation-Driven Development: analysis 17

Situation-Driven Development: configuration Context-aware toolkit 18

Situation-Driven Development: development Software/hardware Outputs Context-aware toolkit Inputs 19

Situation-Driven Development: validation Software/hardware Outputs Context-aware toolkit Inputs 20

Situation-Driven Development: maintenance Software/hardware Outputs Context-aware toolkit Inputs 21

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 22

Context Cloud: literature review • Requirements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Data model Runtime configurations Automatic context data management Reasoning Location End-user development (EUD) Visual programming Web 23

Context Cloud: literature review Data model Context Toolkit Web Relational CMF Visual Programming Ontologies CASS EUD Object oriented Semantic Space Toolkit Location Ontologies JCAF Reasoning Ontologies CoBra Automatic management Key-value pairs SOCAM Runtime configurations Ontologies Hydrogen DiaSuite OPEN Object oriented Object oriented Ontologies 24

Context Cloud: architecture and functionalities Application Management Providers Sources Software / Hardware Programmer XML Web Interface POST Context cloud Knowledge Base Rule 1 Rule Engine A1 Rule 2 Context Model DB Mapping Engine C1 A2 GIS Service Active Provider Passive Provider POST End-user Development Web of Things Cloud computing • Architecture and functionalities XML Domain Expert GET C2 Programmer Programmer 25

Context Cloud: demo Donostia 26

27

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 28

Evaluation: reasoning performance • Configurations 1) Number of context entity instances {1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000} 2) Number of context entity properties {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} 3) Number of rules {100, 200, 300, 400, 500} 4) Number of entities used in the rule conditions {1, 2} • Reasoning time <= 1second 29

Evaluation: reasoning performance • Results 1) Time (ms) Time (ms) 2) Number of properties Number of instances 3) Time (ms) Time (ms) 4) 1 second Number of rules Number of instances 30

Evaluation: reasoning performance • Conclusions  Minimize Number of rules Number of instances Number of entities  Maximize Number of properties used in the rule conditions RAM memory 31

Evaluation: user evaluation • Participants  Tourism Domain Experts (10) and Programmers (10)  Pairs composed by a Domain Expert and a Programmer  They were introduced to the methodology, to the platform and to the experiment’s objectives 32

Evaluation: user evaluation • Procedure  Participants had to identify and detect four situations using the methodology and the platform  Waiting for the bus  Situations were simulated using the Siafu Context Simulator Gros Bus Stop 2 Bus Stop 1 Visitor 33

Evaluation: user evaluation • Procedure  An external observer annotated: The problems of the participants The time spent in the configuration of situations  Participants had to fill out a questionnaire (TAM) Perceived Ease of Use Perceived Usefulness Behavioural Intention 1 Disagree 2 3 4 5 6 Extremely Quite Slightly Slightly Quite Extremely Agree 34

Evaluation: user evaluation Results: Perceived Ease of Use Learning is easy (CC, SDD) Easy to do what they want (CC) Interaction is clear (CC) Programmers Domain experts Participants Skilful (CC) Collaborative work (CC) Collaborative work (SDD) Easy to use (CC, SDD) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 35

Evaluation: user evaluation Results: Perceived Usefulness Develop faster (CC) Performance, productivity, effectiveness (CC) Useful for their jobs (CC) Programmers Useful to do a collaborative work (CC) Participants Useful to do a collaborative work (SDD) SDD is useful to work with CC SDD is useful to develop context-aware systems 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 36

Evaluation: user evaluation Results: Behavioural Intention Would recommend CC Programmers Domain experts Would use CC Participants Would pay for CC 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 37

Evaluation: user evaluation • Results of the observation  Analysis stage The excel sheet promotes the discussion between domain experts and programmers  Configuration stage 30% of the situations were fully configured by domain experts with no intervention of programmers  Average time spent to finish the evaluation test 89 minutes 38

Evaluation: user evaluation • Conclusions  Situation-Driven Development methodology  It can be used to guide the development of context-aware systems.  It is suitable for non-technical users  It is useful to promote a collaborative work  Context Cloud platform  Learning how to use the platform can be difficult, specially for domain experts, but users get more confident as they use it.  It is perceived as a useful platform in order to develop contextaware systems.  It is suitable for non-technical users  It facilitates the collaborative development of context-aware systems.  It is useful to promote a collaborative work 39

Evaluation: user evaluation • Conclusions G1. Collaborative development methodology (SDD) G2. Context-aware software platform (CC) It is possible to involve domain experts in the development life-cycle of context-aware systems in collaboration with programmers, by providing software toolkits and development methodologies adapted to people that do not have programming skills 40

Outline  Introduction  Theoretical framework  Situation-Driven Development methodology  Context Cloud platform  Evaluation  Conclusions 41

Conclusions: contributions 1. Theoretical contribution • Context • Situation 2. Situation-Driven Development methodology 3. Context Cloud platform 4. Involvement of domain experts in the development process 42

Conclusions: implications • Data to be considered in context-aware systems • Complementary technologies and scientific fields • Involvement of domain experts in the development process • Design of methodologies and contextaware toolkits 43

Conclusions: future work • Research on context theory • Complementary reasoning algorithms • Uncertainty in context-aware reasoning • Quality of sensor data • Automatic context data source discovery • Automatic rule creation • Development of context-aware systems by domain experts 44

PLATAFORMA WEB Y METODOLOGÍA PARA EL DESARROLLO DE SISTEMAS SENSIBLES AL CONTEXTO BASADA EN LA COLABORACIÓN ENTRE PROGRAMADORES Y EXPERTOS EN EL DOMINIO Candidato: David Martín del Canto Directores: Dr. Diego López de Ipiña y Dra. Aurkene Alzua Sorzabal Programa: Ingeniería Informática y Telecomunicación Facultad de Ingeniería Deusto – Bilbao, June 7th 2013

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