Plants Without Seeds

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Information about Plants Without Seeds
Education

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: coachmckay

Source: slideshare.net

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Seedless plants notes

Plants Without Seeds Life Science Mr. McKay

Multicellular Algae Algae- Any Simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce food Scientists do not agree on the classification of algae Some think algae should be classified as protists Others think should be with plants

Algae- Any Simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce food

Scientists do not agree on the classification of algae

Some think algae should be classified as protists

Others think should be with plants

Multicellular Algae Algae were the first type of plants on Earth Oldest fossils are around 900 million years old Algae lack the special tubes that transport water and minerals that land plants have No true roots, stems, or leaves Algae do not have seeds Must live in or near water

Algae were the first type of plants on Earth

Oldest fossils are around 900 million years old

Algae lack the special tubes that transport water and minerals that land plants have

No true roots, stems, or leaves

Algae do not have seeds

Must live in or near water

Algae Phyla Algae are divided into three different phylum Brown Algae Red Algae Green Algae They get their names from the Pigments found within their cells

Algae are divided into three different phylum

Brown Algae

Red Algae

Green Algae

They get their names from the Pigments found within their cells

Pigments Green Algae has a noticeable pigment that is the green chlorophyll This captures light energy for food making processes Energy Brown and red algae They both have chlorophyll but it is masked by other accessory pigments These pigments absorb light and transfer it to chlorophyll These other pigments include: pink, red, reddish purple, and reddish black Algae Phyla Continued

Pigments

Green Algae has a noticeable pigment that is the green chlorophyll

This captures light energy for food making processes

Energy

Brown and red algae

They both have chlorophyll but it is masked by other accessory pigments

These pigments absorb light and transfer it to chlorophyll

These other pigments include: pink, red, reddish purple, and reddish black

Brown Algae Sargassum Found in tropics Perfect environment is calm winds and gentle waves Floats on surface by use of tiny air filed sacs that act as life preservers Needs sunlight to produce food

Sargassum

Found in tropics

Perfect environment is calm winds and gentle waves

Floats on surface by use of tiny air filed sacs that act as life preservers

Needs sunlight to produce food

Sargasso Sea This is a favorite hot spot for eels Snake like fishes Eels lay eggs in Brown algae Travel thousands of miles to do so Brown algae has long been used as food for humans In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand Seaweed Brown Algae

Sargasso Sea

This is a favorite hot spot for eels

Snake like fishes

Eels lay eggs in Brown algae

Travel thousands of miles to do so

Brown algae has long been used as food for humans

In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand

Seaweed

Red Algae Like brown algae, red algae is multicellular and live in the ocean. Red algae can grow to be several meters long Never reach the size of brown algae though Some grow as clumps of delicate, branching red threads Others produce hard stiff branches that are rich in calcium carbonate

Like brown algae, red algae is multicellular and live in the ocean.

Red algae can grow to be several meters long

Never reach the size of brown algae though

Some grow as clumps of delicate, branching red threads

Others produce hard stiff branches that are rich in calcium carbonate

Red Algae Red algae usually grow attached to rocks on the ocean floor Can grow at depths of 170 meters Far deeper than any other algae How does red algae make food? Accessory pigments They Absorb little light and convert it to chlorophyll

Red algae usually grow attached to rocks on the ocean floor

Can grow at depths of 170 meters

Far deeper than any other algae

How does red algae make food?

Accessory pigments

They Absorb little light and convert it to chlorophyll

Red Algae Uses include Food Ice cream Dressing Chocolate milk Frosting Agar A substance that is jellylike and used in growing cultures of nutrient bacteria

Uses include

Food

Ice cream

Dressing

Chocolate milk

Frosting

Agar

A substance that is jellylike and used in growing cultures of nutrient bacteria

Green Algae Green Algae Similar to land plants Life cycles Pigments Stored food supplies Earliest forms Unicellular Then colonies Finally Multicellular Uses Bio-fuel

Green Algae

Similar to land plants

Life cycles

Pigments

Stored food supplies

Earliest forms

Unicellular

Then colonies

Finally Multicellular

Uses

Bio-fuel

Green Algae Green algae and our environment Some May live in unusual places Symbiotic with fungi and lichens Assignment Earth Green Algae

Green algae and our environment

Some May live in unusual places

Symbiotic with fungi and lichens

Assignment Earth

Green Algae

Green Algae After 450 Million Years Land plants evolved Mosses and relatives Ferns and complex plants

After 450 Million Years

Land plants evolved

Mosses and relatives

Ferns and complex plants

Land Plants Land plants need to support the leaves and other parts of the body so they do not collapse obtain water and minerals transport food, water, minerals from one part the structure to another prevent excess water loss to the environment Get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur

Land plants need to

support the leaves and other parts of the body so they do not collapse

obtain water and minerals

transport food, water, minerals from one part the structure to another

prevent excess water loss to the environment

Get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur

Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are tiny plants that live in moist places Found on Wet rocks Damp tree bark Muddy banks of ponds and streams In some cases they may cover the ground like fuzzy green carpet Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are tiny plants that live in moist places

Found on

Wet rocks

Damp tree bark

Muddy banks of ponds and streams

In some cases they may cover the ground like fuzzy green carpet

Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts Size means: No need for special transport system as in other land plants They simply transport nutrients from one cell to the next No need for stems or other supporting structures

Size means:

No need for special transport system as in other land plants

They simply transport nutrients from one cell to the next

No need for stems or other supporting structures

Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts Size means: They do not need a special adaption to prevent water loss Such as a waxy covering However the reproduction cells have a thick water-tight coat

Size means:

They do not need a special adaption to prevent water loss

Such as a waxy covering

However the reproduction cells have a thick water-tight coat

Uses of Mosses Dried Sphagnum Mixed with soil to aide in water retention Also aides in changing the chemical balance of the soil to improve plant growth Prevents certain disease causing bacteria In past, used to cover wounds to aide in preventing disease causing bacteria to grow

Dried Sphagnum

Mixed with soil to aide in water retention

Also aides in changing the chemical balance of the soil to improve plant growth

Prevents certain disease causing bacteria

In past, used to cover wounds to aide in preventing disease causing bacteria to grow

Uses of Mosses Sphagnum moss Under correct conditions Peat may form This substance can allow for decay to be slowed greatly Ancient times used it to slow decay of bodies Peat Moss Mummies

Sphagnum moss

Under correct conditions Peat may form

This substance can allow for decay to be slowed greatly

Ancient times used it to slow decay of bodies

Peat Moss Mummies

Vascular Plants Ferns They have vascular tissue Plants that lack this tissue are nonvascular Such as algae Unlike other seedless plants they do have special adaptations Waxy covering Roots that enable water gathering System of tubes that transport nutrients This is what is known as a vascular system

Ferns

They have vascular tissue

Plants that lack this tissue are nonvascular

Such as algae

Unlike other seedless plants they do have special adaptations

Waxy covering

Roots that enable water gathering

System of tubes that transport nutrients

This is what is known as a vascular system

Vascular Plants Vascular plants are much more adapted to the land due to the vascular system The stem is strengthened with cells that are extremely thick and strong This allows ferns to grow in great size compared to the mosses Range in height from a few cm to about a meter

Vascular plants are much more adapted to the land due to the vascular system

The stem is strengthened with cells that are extremely thick and strong

This allows ferns to grow in great size compared to the mosses

Range in height from a few cm to about a meter

Vascular Plants Ferns Although they are better adapted to the land than nonvascular they still are not fully adapted They require standing water in order to reproduce The water needs to be in abundance for this to occur Tiny pockets in the fern’s leaves provide a home for special blue-green bacteria that produce a natural fertilizer

Ferns

Although they are better adapted to the land than nonvascular they still are not fully adapted

They require standing water in order to reproduce

The water needs to be in abundance for this to occur

Tiny pockets in the fern’s leaves provide a home for special blue-green bacteria that produce a natural fertilizer

Vascular Plants Ferns as food In spring fern fiddleheads are sold in specialty food stores When properly cooked they are delicious You should not gather fiddleheads for food unless you are certain they are edible

Ferns as food

In spring fern fiddleheads are sold in specialty food stores

When properly cooked they are delicious

You should not gather fiddleheads for food unless you are certain they are edible

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