Plant Propagation- N. Stoner & D. Lott

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Information about Plant Propagation- N. Stoner & D. Lott
Education

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: ekillinger1

Source: slideshare.net

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Handouts from 3-11-13 about Plant Propagation with N. Stoner and D. Lott

3/7/2014 1 Know how. Know now. Propagation Techniques David Lott, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, West Central Research and Extension Center Nicole Stoner, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Gage County University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Indoor Germination Needs  Containers  Seeding Mix  Water  Light University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Containers  A variety of containers can be used to start seeds  Containers must have drainage or holes created before using!  Clean and sanitized previously used containers before seeding!  Scrub containers with soap and hot water!  Rinse containers with hot water  Dip rinsed containers in a bleach and water solution (1 part bleach and 9 parts water)  Allow containers to dry completely before using! University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Seeding Mix  Seeding mix can be purchased or made at home.  Seeding mix contains:  Vermiculite  Sphagnum Peat Moss  Super Phosphate  Pulverized Limestone University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Seeding Mix Recipe  4 Quarts – Sphagnum Peat Moss  4 Quarts – Vermiculite  1 Tablespoon – Super Phosphate  2 Tablespoons – Pulverized Limestone Starting Indoor Plants From Seeds -University of Missouri Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Timing  Extremely important to have plants ready to plant outdoors when conditions are correct for planting  Crop seeding varies by plant species  Learn to count backwards to confirm appropriate planting time  Interpreting seed packets and cultural information is very important to success

3/7/2014 2 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Seeding Mix Recipe  4 Quarts – Sphagnum Peat Moss  4 Quarts – Vermiculite  1 Tablespoon – Super Phosphate  2 Tablespoons – Pulverized Limestone Starting Indoor Plants From Seeds -University of Missouri Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Planting Seeds Continued  Sow seeds gently and thinly in rows by tapping on the seed packet.  Larger seeds should be directly seeded in individual peat pots, cell packs or compressed peat pellets.  Cover seeds with dry vermiculite or peat moss.  Do not cover very fine seeds such as petunia or begonia University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Planting Seeds Continued  Mist the surface of the planted containers.  Or place containers in shallow containers of warm water to absorb moisture without disturbing seeds.  Do not allow water to run over the top of the container with the newly planted seeds. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Planting Seeding Continued  Watering from the bottom of the container can reduce the chances of “damping off” since the top of the seeding media is dry on top.  Most seeds should be planted at a depth twice the diameter of the individual seed.  Cover container with polyethylene plastic or glass to reduce moisture loss. “Starting Seeds Indoors” – Purdue University Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Germination  Mark down when seeds were planted and when seeds should germinate on a calendar to record keeping.  Watch for seed germination daily.  Move containers to well lit areas or under lights right after germination has started.  Cover un-germinated rows/areas with cloth until germination begins. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Water Needs  Keep the growing environment humid around the newly planted seeds.  Provide a humidifier close to the newly planted seeds to keep humidity levels up.  Never over water newly planted seeds or seedlings.  Allow media to dry out between watering, but do not allow seedlings to wilt.

3/7/2014 3 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Light  Seedlings must receive bright light after germination.  Place containers in a south-exposure window if applicable.  Seedlings can be placed under light fixtures with two fluorescent bulbs.  Use 1 cool white and 1 warm light tube in fixtures. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Light  Avoid using older light tubes that can promote spindly growth.  Place seedlings 3-4 inches from light tubes.  Keep lights on seedlings 14-16 hours each day.  Raise lights as seedlings grow to avoid leaf burn. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Temperature  Growing Environment Temperature Range for Most Bedding Plants and Vegetable Seedlings:  Day – 70-75 degrees Fahrenheit  Night – 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit  Cool Season Vegetable Crops and Some Flowers:  Day – 65 degrees Fahrenheit  Night – 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit  High temperatures promote leggy growth. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Indoor Environment Needs  Keep humidity levels up, especially when indoor heating systems are being used.  Place thermometers in the growing area to monitor day and night temperatures.  Keep growing temperatures and light quality consistent.  Use light timers to ensure the correct number of light hours needed for growth. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Fertilization  Seedlings will need some fertilizer for growth.  Do not over fertilize!  Use a plant soluble 15-30-15 house plant fertilizer.  Apply fertilizer at ½ strength three days after germination.  Apply fertilizer every two weeks with proper dilution recommendation levels. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Handling and Thinning  As soon as plants have developed a set of true leaves, it is time to transplant into larger containers.  Over crowding can produce leggy, spindly plants.  Carefully dig up plants with clean pencil tips, knife blades and plastic plant labels.  Separate closely rooted plants gently.  Handle new plants by the leaves and not the stems!

3/7/2014 4 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Thinning and Transplanting Source: “Starting Plants From Seeds” - North Carolina State Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Transplanting Mix  Use artificial growing media or a home made mix.  Home Made Growing Media Mix:  1 part soil  1 part sphagnum peat moss  1 part sand “Starting Seeds Indoors” – Purdue Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Transplanting Tips  Place growing mix in cell packs, trays or peat pots.  Make a hole deep enough for seedlings to be at the same height they were growing in the seed flat or container.  Place fast growing plants about two inches apart from each other.  Place slow growing plants about one inch apart. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Transplanting Tips  Some bedding plants have two or three seedlings in a cell or pot.  Consider space in the container when transplanting seedlings.  Avoid over-crowding to give plants space to grow!  Gently firm soil around new planted seedlings.  Very gently water transplanted seedlings. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. More Growing Tips  Plants should be thinned before transplanting into new containers!  Place new containers under shade for a few days or under fluorescent lights before moving to increased light exposure.  Continue the same water and fertilizer guidelines used before transplanting. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Damping Off  Seedling are susceptible to “damping off”.  Also know as Rhizoctonia solani.  Symptoms include darkened, sunken tissue at the base of the stem.  Seedlings topple quickly.

3/7/2014 5 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Damping Off Continued  Caused by too much moisture, high temperature and poor light quality.  Use sterile containers or sterilize used containers.  Use only sterile media.  Remove infected plants as soon as possible. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Damping Off Picture Figure 3 Damping off (Rhizoctonia) is a fungal disease of seedlings that girdles the plant’s stem where it enters the growing medium, causing the plant to topple over. ”Starting Plants Indoors From Seeds” - University of Missouri Extension University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Hardening Plants  Harden plants two weeks before planting.  Move plants outside when the temperature is 50 degrees Fahrenheit, away from wind and direct sun.  Gradually move plants into more sun exposure each day.  Reduce the watering to slow growth, but to avoid wilting.  Return plants indoors each night until the chance of freezing is gone.  Cold frames are an excellent choice for hardening University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Hardening Plants Continued  Reduce the watering to slow growth, but to avoid wilting.  Return plants indoors each night until the chance of freezing is gone.  Cold frames are an excellent choice for hardening. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Planting Time!  Know the optimal soil temperature before planting!  Plant in the garden or containers on overcast or cloudy days if possible.  Dig holes twice the area of the transplants with the soil intact. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Planting Time Continued!  Plant at the same soil level as in the cells or containers.  Tomato and marigold may need to be planted a little deeper if tall or leggy.  Plants in peat pots can should have the base removed and the top edges removed to encourage root development.

3/7/2014 6 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. PROPAGATION University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Why Propagate? Methods of Propagation Advantages Disadvantages Seed  Less expensive  Easiest method for some plant species  Wide variety of available cultivars  Avoids transmission of some diseases  Some species are very difficult to germinate from seed  Some plants do not ‘come-true’  Plants often do not bloom the first year Vegetative  Avoids transmission of some diseases  Easiest method for some plant species  Maintains appealing plant characteristics  Must be timed to the season and plant growth stage  Very difficult for some plants University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Propagation Supplies  Water  Polyethylene Bags  Containers  Humidifier  Tape/Twist Ties  Propagation Media – Various Types  Rooting Hormones  Thermometer  Clean, sharp knives University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Propagating Methods  Tip Cutting  Stem Cutting  Cane Cutting  Leaf Cutting  Leaf Section Cutting  Leaf Bud Cutting  Divisions  Runners  Air Layers  Process to increase the number of plants of a species or cultivar  Sexual and Asexual methods University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Tip and Stem Cuttings  Select healthy plants to make cuttings  Cut through plant stems at an angle  Create 3 to 5 inch cuttings with 3 or 4 leaves  Push cutting into moist media 1 inch deep, with one plant node under the soil  Place in a sunny location with temperature between 60 and 70 degrees F University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Tip and Stem Cutting A – Stem and Tip Cutting B – Cane Cutting University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension Stem Cutting Steps – University of Indiana

3/7/2014 7 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Cane Cutting  Used in plants that produce canes or leaf-less stems  Cut cane and stem sections to a length of 2 to 3 inches  Plant partially in the surface in moist media  Buds will form and form a new stem when the stem has rooted University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Whole Leaf Cutting  Can be prepared with or without their stalks  After removing the leaf from the parent plant, plant it in growing media  Can be done with or without rooting hormone  Roots form at the base of the original leaves University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Leaf Section  Cut the leaves into pieces  Dip the edge of the cuttings in rooting hormone  Insert around ½ to 1 inch deep University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  A) Pull branch down for simple layer  B) Make wound or cut at bend  C) Stake tip to hold upright Simple Layering University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  Easy to use on raspberries and blackberries  Root tips of current season’s growth Tip Layering University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Air Layering

3/7/2014 8 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Air Layering 1 2 3 4 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  The act of joining 2 plants (or their parts) together  Can be done with more than 2 plants at a time  Best time: spring, just as new growth starts Grafting University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  Stock wood: lower part of the graft which becomes the root system  Scion wood: upper part of the graft which becomes the top of the plant  To be successful the cambium layers of the stock and scion must line up  Cambium: tissue between the wood and bark of a tree or shrub, a single layer of cells actively dividing to produce new cells Grafting Terminology University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  Some plants do not come true from seed  Many fruit trees  Many roses  To have a better rootstock  Disease resistance  More drought tolerance  More adapted to soil and climate factors  To make a dwarf variety Why Graft Plants University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now.  Most successful  Plants in the same genus and species  Different varieties  Fairly successful  Plants only in the same genus  Weak or short-lived graft unions  Least successful  Plants with different genus  Often not possible, but some cases exist  Not successful  Plants in different families cannot be grafted What can be Grafted University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Whip Graft Fitting the stock and the scion for a whip graft. Wrapping to protect the whip graft. Cutting the stock for a whip graft. Whip graft.

3/7/2014 9 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Whip Graft University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Cleft Graft Waxing a cleft graft. A successful cleft graft depends on good cambial contact. Inserting the scion for a cleft graft. Cuts on both sides of the scion for a cleft graft form a wedge. Preparing the stock for a cleft graft. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Cleft Graft University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. T-Budding Inserting the bud for a T-bud graft. Wrapping the bud for a T-bud graft. Preparing the stock for T-budding. Obtaining a budstick for T-budding. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. T-Budding University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Patch Budding

3/7/2014 10 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Patch Budding http://www.windward.org/notes/notes69/lindsay6915.htm University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Four-Flap Grafting Initial slicing of the stock for four flap or banana grafting. Cutting the scion (Photo: Bill Goff, Auburn University). Peeling back of the four flaps (Photo: Bill Goff, Auburn University). http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_id=7905 University of Nebraska–Lincoln Know how. Know now. Four-Flap Grafting Cutting the stock for four- flap grafting (Photo: Bill Goff, Auburn University). Rubber band holding scion in place (Photo: Bill Goff, Auburn University). Wrapped scion (Photo: Bill Goff, Auburn University). http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_id=7905

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