plant cell

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Information about plant cell
Education

Published on November 18, 2017

Author: navdeeppau

Source: authorstream.com

PLANT CELL: PLANT CELL Submitted To : Submitted By : Mr. Navdeep Shingh Jamwal Priyanka Goel B.Sc. Agriculture 4 th year (7 th sem.) PLANT CELL: PLANT CELL PLANT CELL: PLANT CELL Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. Their distinctive features include: A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses, pectin and in many cases lignin, is secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan . The most notable being the chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll, a green-colored pigment that absorbs sunlight, and allows the plant to make its own food in the process known as photosynthesis . Organelles: Organelles Cell membrane Cell wall Nuclear membrane Plastid Chloroplast Golgi Bodies Cytoplasm Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Mitochondrion Cell membrane : Cell membrane The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment . It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles . Cell wall : Cell wall A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mycoplasma bacteria), in algae, plants and fungi but rarely in other eukaryotes including animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters. Nuclear membrane & Plastid : Nuclear membrane & Plastid A nuclear membrane , also known as the nucleolemma or karyotheca , is the lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells . The nuclear membrane consists of two lipid bilayers—the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane. The space between the membranes is called the perinuclear space. It is usually about 20–40 nm wide. The nuclear membrane also has many small holes called nuclear pores that allow material to move in and out of the nucleus. The plastid is a major double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color. Chloroplast & Golgi bodies: Chloroplast & Golgi bodies The main role of chloroplasts is to conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and converts it and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water. The Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination. It is of particular importance in processing proteins for secretion, containing a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins as the proteins move through the apparatus. Cytoplasm, Nucleus & Chromatin: Cytoplasm, Nucleus & Chromatin the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless. the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei. Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA .The primary functions of chromatin are 1) to package DNA into a more compact, denser shape, 2) to reinforce the DNA macromolecule to allow mitosis, 3) to prevent DNA damage, and 4) to control gene expression and DNA replication . Mitochondrion: Mitochondrion The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms . Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. THANKS: THANKS

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