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plant-biotech

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Information about plant-biotech
Science-Technology

Published on December 18, 2008

Author: aSGuest7217

Source: authorstream.com

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Plant Biotech : Plant Biotech Start with the basics… : Start with the basics… There are four major classifications of plants: Herbaceous Have soft stems, herbs, some vines, turfgrass, die back to the ground each year Woody Shrubs, trees, certain vines, produce wood, have buds surviving above ground during the winter Deciduous Plants that drop leaves every winter Evergreen Plants that keep their leaves year round Dicots and Monocots : Dicots and Monocots Dicots are plants that have two cotyledons (seed leaves) in their seedling stage Monocots are plants that have one cotyledon in their seedling stage Life Cycles : Life Cycles Vegetative Stage Begins when seeds produces leaves and lasts until plant reaches maturity Reproductive Stage When a plant produces flowers and fruits Dormancy Slowed or inactive growth Plant Propagation : Plant Propagation There are two ways to propagate a plant Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction : Sexual Reproduction Reproduction of plants with the use of seeds Plants from seeds are called seedlings This is the “natural” process of reproduction called pollination Asexual Reproduction : Asexual Reproduction The reproduction of new plants from stems, leaves, or roots of parent plants No seeds are used The outcome are young/new plants that are genetic copies of the parent plant In other words…clones! Chemical Needs of Plants : Chemical Needs of Plants Chemical Needs of Plants : Chemical Needs of Plants Macronutrients Nitrogen: encourages the green color and vegetative growth in plants. It is necessary for the production of food via photosynthesis Phosphorus: encourages flowering and root growth It is necessary for reproduction and photosynthesis Chemical Needs of Plants : Chemical Needs of Plants Macronutrients Potassium: important for the development of fruit and preparation of plants for winter Activates enzymes and is important in osmosis Plant DeficienciesPotassium : Plant DeficienciesPotassium Plant DeficienciesNitrogen : Plant DeficienciesNitrogen Plant DeficienciesPhosphorus : Plant DeficienciesPhosphorus Chemical Needs of Plants : Chemical Needs of Plants Micronutrients or Trace Elements Calcium, molybdenum, sulfur, iron, magnesium, boron, and zinc Perform a variety of functions in plants Only small amounts are needed but plants will die in their absence Plant Deficiencies : Plant Deficiencies Calcium molybdenum Zinc Magnesium Sulfur Chemical Needs of Plants : Chemical Needs of Plants Hormones: Chemical substance that controls physiological responses, including shoot and root growth Hormones : Hormones Examples: Auxins: Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) Promotes the formation of adventitious roots in stem cuttings Cytokinins: promotes adventitious shoot growth and elongation Gibberellins: Breaks seed dormancy, stimulates flowering Physical Needs of Plants : Physical Needs of Plants Water Responsible for the transfer of nutrients, maintenance of temperature, preservation of turbidity, and necessary to carry out photosynthesis in plants Water : Water Absorbed by tiny root hairs scattered throughout the roots Carried through the plant by the process of diffusion Exit the plant through the stomata in the bottom of the leaves in the process of transpiration Large trees can absorb hundreds of gallons a day Vascular System : Vascular System Physical Needs of Plants : Physical Needs of Plants Sunlight Absorbed by chlorophyll found in the chloroplasts of the leaves and stems of the plant Provides an unlimited source of energy for plants Blue and red light spectrums are the most important in photosynthesis Green light is reflected by chlorophyll, thus of little use for energy High levels of ultraviolet light damage or destroy plant tissue Physical Needs of Plants : Physical Needs of Plants Oxygen Plants need oxygen to produce energy and for the movement of nutrients through plants Oxygen is released as a byproduct of the process of photosynthesis Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Physical Needs of Plants : Physical Needs of Plants Carbon Dioxide Absorbed by plants for use in the process of photosynthesis Exhaled by humans Increased levels can help to increase the rate of photosynthesis in many plants Plants and Environmental Stimuli : Plants and Environmental Stimuli Factors Affecting Food Production : Factors Affecting Food Production Photoperiod Photointensity CO2 levels Photoperiod : Photoperiod The amount of time a plant is exposed to adequate light energy Even a momentary disruption of photoperiod can throw off the light cycle requirements of a plant Example: Poinsettia Example: Poinsettia : Example: Poinsettia Flowering is "photoperiodically" induced in the poinsettia. This means that flowers begin to form when the nights are long enough. The poinsettia is a short-day or long-night plant. Without long nights, this plant will continue to produce leaves and will grow but will never flower. Very short periods of lighting at night may be enough to prevent or interfere with flowering. Even light from a street light can stop flowering. Photointensity : Photointensity The spectrum and strength of the light to which a plant is exposed Too much light can burn plants Too little decreases food production Example: Sun Plant: Sedum Shade Plant: Hosta CO2 Levels : CO2 Levels Needed for photosynthesis, like oxygen for humans, often the limiting factor in food production Special generators are used to raise carbon dioxide levels in some production greenhouses Factors affecting plant growth and reproduction : Factors affecting plant growth and reproduction Oxygen Nutrients Geotropism Phototropism Oxygen : Oxygen Prolonged exposure of the roots of most plants to stagnant water will eventually “suffocate” the plant This will limit nutrient intake and stop the production of new roots Nutrients : Nutrients Both macronutrients and micronutrients are needed for plant growth and reproduction in various levels throughout the year Excessive amounts of any nutrient can burn plants, destroy cells, or prevent the absorption of other nutrients Excessive Nutrients : Excessive Nutrients Geotropism : Geotropism The directional growth of plant roots and stems in response to the force of gravity Phototropism : Phototropism The growth or response of a plant to varying light levels

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