Planning effective lessons and courses for Secondary

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Information about Planning effective lessons and courses for Secondary

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: srovegno



Key features of adolescence were discussed as well as the effects these have on planning


√ Key characteristics of adolescence √ √ Teenagers as language learners Teaching teenagers: main considerations A lesson cycle Sample activities √ √ Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Task 1 – Complete the statements with your own ideas • Teenagers….. • Teenagers learn…. • Teaching teenagers….. • A motivated teen… • An unmotivated teen…..


Challenge #1 Biological Development Onset of puberty 10-12 11-13 Growth spurt 10-12 12-14 Early maturation 7

Challenge #2 Cognitive Development Normal adolescent behaviour?     to argue for the sake of arguing to be self- centered to constantly find fault in adult’s position to be overly dramatic

Cognitive Development • ability to think abstractly • ability to analyze situations logically • ability to think realistically about the future, goal setting • moral reasoning • Entertain hypothetical situations, use of metaphors

Challenge #3  Who am I? Where do I belong? - Identity development (gender, sexual, ethnic) - Self-esteem - Role of peer group  How do I relate to others? - Social Skills - Emotional Intelligence Social Emotional Development

School YOUTH Media/ Internet

Social factors that poison youth’ well being and healthy development

Risk Taking Behaviour? It is normal! - But there is concern – Exploration of new behaviors, decision making skills, identity development Adolescents overestimate their capacities, rely on their immature ability to judge, or give in to peer pressure

Problem Behaviours       Teen Pregnancy Violence Delinquency Substance Abuse School drop out Mental health

Positive Youth Outcomes • • • • Volunteerism Music & Performing Arts High School Graduation Enrollment in College

 Why songs?  a context for language theme-based pronunciation and intonation. gist listening and detailed listening.    Popularity Sensitization Language standard Meaningful learning

When starting over,.............. I feel____________________________________________________________ I need __________________________________________________________ I’m worried about _______________________________________________ I’m keen on ____________________________________________________ I look forward to_________________________________________________

Example of Authentic Materials: (Hedge, 2000; Baird, 2004) Spoken: TV commercials, films, news items, weather forecasts, airport and station announcement, radio talks, interviews, and debates. Written: recipes, articles, train timetables, advertisements, brochures, poems, application forms, and instruction for use of equipment.

      How important are rules, norms and discipline to promote language learning? Which are your top 5 rules and norms in the classroom? How did you reach them? Are the same for every group? Can discipline be imposed on learners? What are the main characteristics a set of rules must have to be successful?

 T places firm limits and controls on the students.  verbal exchange and discussion are discouraged  students need to follow directions and not ask why.  students receive praise and encouragement infrequently, if at all.  T tells the students what to do and when to do it. He makes all classroom decisions. Authoritarian

    places limits and controls on the students but simultaneously encourages independence.. open to considerable verbal interaction, including critical debates exhibits a warm and nurturing attitude toward the students and expresses genuine interest and affection. will guide the students through a project, rather than lead them. Authoritative

few demands or controls on the students.  T strives to not hurt the student's feelings and has difficulty saying no to a student or enforcing rules.  T sometimes bases classroom decisions on his students feelings rather than on their academic concerns.  T wants to be the students' friend. He may even encourage contact outside the classroom (through facebook, twitter and other social media sites).  Laissez-faire

This teacher places few demands, if any, on the students and appears generally uninterested.  T often feels that class preparation is not worth the effort.  Also, classroom discipline is lacking. This teacher may lack the skills, confidence, or courage to discipline students.  The students sense and reflect the teacher's indifferent attitude.  Indifferent

What is a discipline problem?

Categorizing levels of behaviour (adapted from Scrivener) Poor behaviour Unacceptable behaviour Serious offence Being noisy Being rude to classmates Making racist, sexist, homophobic or other discriminatory comment Distracting others Being rude to the teacher Theft Late arrivals Cheating in a test Vandalizing Leaving rubbish or litter in class Missing lessons Using L1 Swearing in class Using mobile phones, mp3 in class without permission in Classroom Management Techniques, CUP, 2012

So what are the components of discipline? (by M Boynton and C Boynton) in The Educator's guide to preventing and solving discipline

         Consistency Don’t threaten sanctions unless you mean it Minimal rules State and wait Wordless interventions Physical proximity Sit down with them Distract rather than address Everyday nuisances: toilet visits, late arrivals, packing up early, mobile phones So how can we deal with small disruptions?

Break out of escalating cycles  Distinguishing between presenting problem and the underlying problem:  Deal with the immediate, visible, tangible bad behaviour  Follow up later   Don’t leave it too late How about serious discipline issues?

    Assertive teachers react confidently and quickly in situations that require the management of student behaviour. They are supported by a few clearly stated classroom rules that have been explained, practiced, and enforced consistently. They give firm, clear, concise directions to students who are in need of outside guidance to help them behave appropriately. Students who comply are reinforced, whereas those who disobey rules and directions receive negative consequences. Assertive teachers do not view students as adversaries, nor do they use an abrasive, sarcastic, hostile style (as with "hostile" teachers). Neither do they react in a passive, inconsistent, timid, non-directive manner (as with "non-assertive" teachers). A key concept: Assertive discipline Lee and Canter

True on the whole 1. I try to avoid using L1 in the classroom. 2. When I find myself using L1, I tend to feel a bit guilty about it. 3. I try to avoid translating new words, use translation only as a last resort. 4. If an L1 translation is necessary, I’d elicit from a student rather than giving it myself. 5. I might translate orally, but would not write up L1 translations on the board 6. I would not ask my pupils to do full translation exercises of lists of words, expressions or sentences (English L1) 7. I would not ask my pupils to do full translation exercises (L1 English) False on the whole

When does using the L1 help?

Tips for promoting L2 use       Teach ‘classroom management’ English Insist on pupils using the English they know Make sure understanding English is necessary! Translate only what is necessary for understanding Addressing individual needs Realistic expectations

A unit of work Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Opening Follow-up Closure Lic. Silvia Rovegno Stimulation Instructionparticipation

Opening a lesson What are the aims of the lesson? What prior knowledge do students need to work through the lesson? Do I need to pre teach something? Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Stimulation  How can I help students relate the topic of the lesson to their lives?  How can I grab sts´attention?  How can I lead them into the lesson? Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Instruction/participation  How can I check students´understanding?  How can I encourage participation?  Lic. Silvia Rovegno How can I encourage interaction?

Do you understand? Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

 Target sentence: Look! They're painting the wall           Is it happening now? Yes Can you see it? Yes Is the painting finished? No Are they painting now? Yes Is this the past, present or future? Present Lic. Silvia Rovegno

 Target sentence: She's a shop assistant. She works in a shop         Has she got a job? Yes Is she working now Don't know Does she work there every day? Yes Is this the past, present or future? Present, but also past and probably future. Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Closure  Lic. Silvia Rovegno How can I evaluate my students´learning?  Were the aims of the lesson achieved?

Can students use the target language spontaneously? √ Class surveys √ Conversation grids √ Line dialogue √ Jeopardy game Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Follow-up   Lic. Silvia Rovegno How can I reinforce learning? How can I prepare them for next lesson?

√ Pronunciation spot √ Vocabulary revision and expansion √ Learner development activities Lic. Silvia Rovegno

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

3 things you take from this session Any concepts?  Activities?  Ideas?  That you will be introducing to your planning this year

Lic. Silvia Rovegno

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