Published on April 6, 2014
Facts and Figures Peter the Great was born in 1672 and he died in 1725. Peter was tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1725. Sole ruler since 1696. His self-given title was Peter the Great though he was officially Peter I. A giant, strong man – 6' 8“ (2,04m) Believed in starting from the bottom and working his way up. An experienced army officer and navy admiral, a skilful shipbuilder and an amazingly energetic personality, not afraid of physical labour. Ruthless (Alexei, William Mons) No manners, often described as a drunkard and womanizer. Two wives 1) arranged marriage to Eudoxia; 2) a servant girl Martha Scavronsky with whom he had fourteen children; three of them survived to adulthood. Personally clipped off the beards of his nobles,introduced taxes on them. Banned traditional Muscovite dress. Changed his title from Tsar to Emperor on 22 October, 1721. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNfKBY1MazE
Domestic Reforms The country he inherited was backward, medieval. Lacked an access route to the seas. Window to Europe. New capital built from scratch on the Gulf of Finland in 1703. Reformed semi-autonomous Church (rival to the tsar, rich,refused to be modenized – became a government department) Founded new schools run by foreign teachers. Young Russian noblemen were encouraged to go to western Europe and learn about the latest technology, economic theory and political science. A broadening of knowledge was not seen as being a threat by Peter; on the contrary, he believed that these young educated noblemen were of great benefit to Russia's development. introduced the practice of marrying royal princes to Western princesses. Thereafter, nearly every tsar had a German wife, and thus the German influence became strong in upper-class circle.
Europe in 1700
The Great Northern War 1700-1721 Russia, Poland and Denmark formed a pact of aggression against Sweden. They were all after Swedish territory. Russia was after the Baltic coast, Poland wanted Livonia and Denmark wanted to regain the Skåne provinces in the south of Sweden. Sweden had an alliance with England and the Netherlands. Battle of Narva 10 November, 1700 - the Swedes won a splendid victory. In 1710, the last of the Swedish possessions the Baltic; Viborg, Riga, Reval and Pernau, were lost to the Russians. During 1713, the Russians attacked Finland and in 1714 Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
On August 30, 1721, a peace treaty finally was signed in Nystad between Sweden and Russia. It stated that Sweden had to give up all possessions in the Baltic; Ingermanland, Livonia and Estonia including the islands Ösel and Dagö. Further, Sweden lost counties in the southeastern part of Finland. Results: Russia – a new major power in The Baltic Sea and an important player in the European politics. Tallinn capitulated on 10 October, 1710. The whole country under Russia
• Most famous man-made park in Estonia, about 100 hectares. • Birthday on 22 July, 1718, corner stone on 21 May, 1720. • «Peter I, by the divine favour the emperor of All Russia, ordered to construct a house for him on this location in Revel in July, 1718». These words are written on the memorable plate built into a wall with an imperial double-headed eagle and the initials of the head architect Niccolo Michetti and his Russian assistant Michael Zemtsov. • Intended as summer residence for the royalty. Was used as one by all monarchs of Russia (AlexanderI - Nicholas II) • Was dubbed Catherinenthal in honour of the empress, Catherine I. In Estonian, Kadriorg literally means Catherine´s Valley. • Public park from the start. More than 500 trees planted (chestnuts) • After Peter´s death the royalty lost interest, but the area continued to be associated with art and culture. Plans
Italian Niccolo Michetti • Architect from Rome, worked in St. Petersburg and Peterhof (the cascading fountain) • Juhan Maiste: “päikesekiir, mis on kukkunud lumme ja tardunud hetkega jääkristallideks”. • Palace typically in Roman baroque. (1600-1750).Mostly Europe but spread to Asia, South –America. • A typical Italian villa consists of three parts. The main building and the wings are raised upon a podium. All three constructions are adjoined by walls. One facade has more floors than the other. Contrasting colours (white and brick red)
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