Published on April 18, 2013
By: Dr. Pamela Josefina T.Fabie
Major Functions: They incise food and reduce food during mastication They help sustain themselves in the dental arches byassisting in the development and protection of tissuesthat support themex: physiologic mesial drifitng
Important Values• Good teeth makes one more physically attractive• Good diction is an asset and correct speech is madepossible by the normal development of teeth andjaws• Psychologically physical and mental concentration isaided by clenching the tooth firmly during almost anyactivity
Mesial and distalaspects of the 6 anteriorteeth (both maxillaryand mndibular)TRIANGLE
A. The longest uneven side toward occlusal orincisal surfacea. labial and lingual aspects of all anteriorteethb. Buccal and lingual of all posterior teethTRAPEZOIDB. Shortest uneven side toward occlusala. Mesial and distal aspects of allposterior teeth
A. The longest uneven side toward occlusal orincisal surfacea. labial and lingual aspects of all anteriorteethb. Buccal and lingual of all posterior teethRHOMBOIDB. Shortest uneven side toward occlusala. Mesial and distal aspects of allposterior teeth
Covered with enamelA. Incisal Ridge/ Edge(Central And LateralIncisors)o To punch and cutfoodB. Single cusps(Canines /Cuspids)o To tear and shearfoodo To support incisorsans premolars
C. Two cusps(Premolars/Bicuspids)o To grind foodo To support canineD. Three Cusps (Molars)o To grind or trituratefood
Covered with cementum The length and number of roots depend on the sizeand function of teeth Single rooted – incisors, canines and mandibularpremolars Birooted – Maxillary 1st premolar, Mandibular molars Multirooted – Maxillary molars
Positive contact relation mesially and distally of onetooth with another while they are on their respectiveposition in the dental archIMPORTANCE:a. It serves to keep food from packing betweenteethb. It helps to stabilize the dental arches by thecombined anchorage of all teeth in either arch, ifin positive contact with each other
PCA can be observed in 2Aspects:1. Labial and Buccalaspects Demonstrate therelative positions ofthe contacts cervico-incisally and cervico-occlusaly2. Incisal and Occlusalaspects Show the relativepositions of the contactareas labio-lingually orbucco-lingually
Formed by the proximal surfaces in contact Triangularly-shaped spaces in between teeth and arenormally filled by the gingival tissues There is normally a distance of 1-1.5mm betweenenamel and alveolar boneInterproximalspaces Interdentalpapilla
When 2 teeth in the same arch are in contact, theircurvatures adjacent to the contact areas spillwayspacesPURPOSES:1. Serve as spillways of food during mastication2. It prevents food from being forced to the contactarea
Labial /BuccalOcclusal/ incisal
PHYSIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE:1. Holds the gingiva under definite tension2. Protect the gingival margins by deflecting foodmaterial away from the margins during mastication
• EFFECTS OF TOO MUCH CURVATUREGingiva is protected too much and loses ‘tone’ underthe exaggerated contour, food material and debris willbe packed around the gingiva, stagnation of foreignmaterial leads to chronic inflammation of the gingiva0.5mm – the normal curvature of the CEJ to the crestof contour• EFFECT OF ABSENCE OR MINIMAL CURVATUREgingival tissue may be driven apically resulting togum recession and possible pathologic changes
The curvature of the cervicalline of most teeth will beapproximately 1mm lessdistally than mesially Normal attachment follows thecurvature of the CEJ if theteeth are in normal alignmentand contact
PERIODONTAL LIGAMENTCEMENTUMALVEOLAR PROCESSPULPGINGIVA
A dense connective tissue attaching the tooth to thealveolar bone Aka Periodontal fibers Thickness varies from .1 - .25mmFUNCTIONS:1) Formative2) Supportive3) Nutritive4) Sensory5) protective
BLOOD SUPPLY:1. Branches of alveolar artery2. Branches of interradicular artery3. Gingival vessels that enter theperiodontal ligament in the crestalregionNERVES:Contains both sensory and autonomicnerve endingsMOBILITY:1st degree - less than 1mm2nd degree - 1.1-2mm3rd degree – more than 2mm
TRANSEPTAL – embedded into the cementum of the adjacenttooth and extends interproximally over the alveolar crestALVEOLAR CRESTAL – extends obliquely from thecementum beneath the junctional epithelium to the alveolarcrestHORIZONTAL - extends ata right angle from the longaxis of the tooth fromcementum to the alveolarboneTranseptalfibers
OBLIQUE – largest group or principal p.f.; extends fromthe cementum to the alveolar boneINTERRADICULAR –courses over the crestof the interradicularseptum in the furcationsof multirooted teethTranseptalfibersAPICAL – radiates from the apical cementum to the alveolarbone at the base of the socket
Mineralized connective tissue that covers the roots ofteeth MAIN FUNCTION: attach periodontal ligament to thetoothCLASSIFICATION:According to Location:• Coronal cementum• Radicular cementumAccording to thePresence or Absence ofCollagen fibril:• Fibrillar cementum• Afibrillar cementum
According to Cellularity:• cellular cementum-Covers the coronal half of the root; devoid of cell• acellular cementum-Covers the apical half of root and furcations ofmultirooted teeth; with ‘cementocytes”Cells: Cementoblasts Cementoclasts cementocytes
Enamel Projections Hypercementosis Enamel pearls Cementicles
Part of maxilla and mandible that forms and supports theteethPARTS:a. Alveolar bone Proper Consist of thinlamella of bonesurrounding the rootb. Supporting Bone Surrounds thealveolar bone properand providesadditional bonesupport
BONE CELLS: Osteoblasts Osteoclasts OsteocytesAlveolarbone Proper(laminaDura)Supportingbone
Consists of vascular connective tissues within the rigiddentinal tubulesFUNCTIONS:a. Formative – forerunnerof dentinb. Nutritivec. Sensoryd. Defensive
PULP IS COMPOSEDof:a. CELLS• Firbroblasts• Odontoblasts• Defensive cells (histiocytes wanderingcells, undifferentiated mesenchymalcells, polymorphonuclearleukocytes, lymphocytes, plasmacells, eosiniphils)b. GROUND SUBSTANCEo Protein associated with glycoproteinso Acid mucopolysaccharides
c. FIBERS Collagen fibersd. BLOOD VESSELS Either arteries or arterioles enter the pulp at itsapical termination and coursecoronally, increasing and branching intocapillaries adjacent to the odontoblastic layer
e. NERVESo Enter the pulp at its apical segment with theafferent blood vessels either as accompanyingindividual units or as intimately associated nervesheathso Majority of sensory receptors on the dentalnerves are free nerve endings
1. Decrease in cellular components2. Dentinal sclerosis3. Decrease In the number and quality of blood vesselsand nerves4. Reduction on volume of the pulp owing to continueddentin deposition and reparative dentin formation5. Increase in the number and thickness of collagenfibers6. Increase of pulp stones and dystrophicmineralizations
Part of oral cavity that covers thealveolar bone and surrounds thecervical region of the teethREGIONS:a. Marginal Gingiva (Unattached gingiva)• Border of the gingiva that surrounds theteeth in a collar fashion• It forms the soft tissue wall of the gingivalsulcus which may be separated from thetooth surface by a periodontal probe
b. Attached gingiva• Border of the gingiva thatsurrounds the teeth in a collarfashion• It forms the soft tissue wall ofthe gingival sulcus which maybe separated from the toothsurface by a periodontal probe
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