Physics Final Presentation Ed Ala Brian

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Information about Physics Final Presentation Ed Ala Brian

Published on October 15, 2007

Author: funnyside


Slide2:  Nanotechnology “the next big thing is really small” Phyx 335, June 2, 2005 Brian Chen Ed Huang Ala Qubain Slide3:  What are buildings like these for? Center for Nanofabrication and Molecular Self-Assembly, Northwestern University Slide4:  Presentation Outline Introduction & Basics Current Applications Future Applications Nanotubes and Buckyballs Summary Slide5:  Introduction For some, nanotechnology means the creation of new materials For others, it means ultra-tiny robots that can clean tartar from our teeth We’ve all heard this term thrown around, but what exactly is it? Slide6:  Introduction Goal is to build, atom by atom: incredibly advanced and extremely capable nano-scale machines and computers ordinary sized objects, using other incredibly small machines called assemblers or fabricators (found inside nanofactories) Combines physics, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics, and computer science Slide7:  Introduction A nanometer is so small that if one meter were stretched from New York to Los Angeles, each nanometer would still be only the size of an aspirin tablet “nano” is Greek for midget Nanometer is ~40,000 times smaller than the width of human hair Slide8:  Feynman’s Opinion “The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.” — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics Slide9:  Example Image written using Dip-Pen Nanolithography and imaged using lateral force microscopy mode of an atomic force microscope Courtesy of the Mirkin Group, Northwestern University Slide10:  Introduction Slide11:  Introduction Current manufacturing techniques are very crude Making a smooth edge requires grinding away and discarding trillions of atoms (i.e. removing excess material) Nanotechnology allows construction with atomic precision Slide12:  Introduction Scanning Tunneling Microscopy – moving single atoms Some nano-related fields are: Nanomaterials Nanomedicine Nanobiotechnology Nanolithography Nanoelectronics Nanomagnetics Nanorobots and many others Slide13:  Introduction But doesn’t assembling things one atom at a time take forever? This is where parallel assembly come in Imagine a bunch of microscopic robots, which can all place atoms Software can then be used to tell those robots what and where to build Slide14:  Nanocrystals As much as 300% harder than similar bulk materials Wear resistance is dictated by hardness of material Possible uses: Car Bumpers Aluminum Panels Metal bearings An image of an antimicrobial dressing covered with nanocrystalline silver Used to kill a bread spectrum of bacteria in less than 30 minutes Slide15:  Nanoparticles Eddie Bauer Nano-Care Vitamins Sunscreen Using aluminum nanoparticles to create rocket propellants that burn at double the rate. Nanoparticulate synthetic bone. Slide16:  Nanocatalysts Used by China’s largest coal company Liquefy coal into gas Catalyst: Gel based nanoscale catalyst Impact Reduce acid rain Dependency on less foreign fuel Slide17:  Nanofilter Filter the smallest particles. Nano sized Alumina fiber mesh Water filtration Air Filtration Sterilization Slide18:  NEMS Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate. System on a chip possible Brains, eyes and arms in one system. Slide19:  Smart Dust Tiny bottle-cap-shaped micro machines fitted with wireless communication devices. Application Monitoring humidity to assess freshness of food Monitoring quadriplegics’ eye movements and facial gestures to assist in wheel chair operation. Detecting cancer. Road assistance. Slide20:  Spintronics Using the spin of the electron rather than its charge for transport of charge More compact and robust devices Slide21:  Nanotubes Profile Known as carbon nanotubes or nanowires (non-carbon) Cylindrical wall with atoms arranged in hexagonal or pentagonal faces Strength and strain Properties of conductors, semiconductors or insulators High thermal conductivity Dimensions: 0.4 nm in diameter Slide22:  “It’s got the brains.” Conducting, semiconducting and insulating states Property depends on chiral angle (direction of roll) and doping Nanoscale wires and electronic components Conductivity changes under stress Nanocomputing - Carbon nanotube FETs 500 times smaller than today’s transistors Carbon Nanotubes Slide23:  “It’s got strength and endurance.” 100 times stronger than steel at one-sixth of the weight Tensile strength: 200 Giga Pascal Stiff as diamond – Young’s modulus over 1 Tera Pascal Multi-walled nanotubes Reinforced composites – transportation industry? Aerospace? Carbon Nanotubes Slide24:  Bucky Balls Profile Full name: Buckministerfullerine 60 Carbon atoms in interlocking hexagons and pentagons, cousins with graphite and diamond 1996 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry Nanoscale single element hollow spheroid Resistant to high speed collisions Superconducting Useful to nanotechnology Slide25:  “A step closer to nanotechnology.” Scanning-force microscope (SFM) - relies on fine tips to detect and nudge molecules Tips were 2000 nanometers thick Improvement: bucky balls capped at one end of nanotube – down to 5 to 20 nanometers thick More accurate atomic manipulation Extremely durable – bucky balls withstand slamming into steel at 15,000mph 2x as hard as diamond at 70% compression Slide26:  In Closing… Science fiction is not far away Nanotech offers precise, long lasting, cleaner, safer and cheaper products Nanotech is applicable to many industries It opens new frontiers for research in a variety of fields Quality of life improved Slide27:  Have a great summer! THANKS! You too!!!!! Slide28:  References

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