Physical Protection

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Information about Physical Protection

Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Riccardino


Slide1:  CPP Study Course Protection of Assets Manual Physical Security Vulnerability:  Vulnerability Define the problem. Kind of threats or risks. Likelihood or probability of threat. Impact or effect on assets. Loss Event Profile Security counter measure should be provided if It will cause an actual loss measurable by some standard The loss is not speculative in the sense that nonoccurrence would realize a gain Loss Event Probability or Frequency Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Loss Event Probability or Frequency Probability Factors Physical Environment Social Environment Political Environment Historical Experience Criminal State-of-Art Application of Probability Factors Analyses Check List Risk Matrix Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Probability Ratings Virtually Certain Highly Probable Moderately Probable Improbable Probability Unknown Rating Symbols Loss Event Criticality Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Kinds of Costs to be considered Direct Money Negotiable Instruments Property Information Indirect Reputation Goodwill Loss of Employees Morale of Employees Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Criticality Ratings Fatal Very Serious Moderately Serious Relatively Unimportant Seriousness Unknown Preparing a Solution Logically look at what must occur for threat to happen Leverage attack point Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Solving the Problem Countermeasures Countermeasures Criteria Validity Degree of Reliability Approximate Cost Delay or Required time to implement Vulnerability (Cont.):  Vulnerability (Cont.) Economic Justification of Security Cost Avoidance Loss Control Asset Recoveries Measuring Return on Expenditures Barriers:  Barriers Have Security in depth Layers of security to delay and deter Natural Water Mountains Marshes Deserts Other Terrain difficult to traverse Barriers (Cont.):  Barriers (Cont.) “Structural Barrier physically and psychologically deters or discourages the undetermined, delays the determined, and channels the flow of the traffic through entrances.” Barriers (Cont.):  Barriers (Cont.) Structural Barriers Building Surfaces Roofs, Floors and Walls Building Openings Doors Windows Drives Grills Utilities into and out of area Metal, including drawn wire Masonry Barriers (Cont.):  Barriers (Cont.) Glass Electrically Conductive Glass Rough or patterned Glass Mirrors and Transparent Mirrors Tempered Glass Laminated Glass Bullet-Resisting Glass Wired Glass Acrylic Glass (plexiglass) (polycarbonate) Perimeter Barriers:  Perimeter Barriers Perimeter Barriers Chain Link Fencing Outriggers Privacy slats Barbed Wire Concertina Wire Barbed Tape Expanded Metal and Welded wire Fabric Locking:  Locking Mechanical Lock Warded Lock Lever Locks Pin Tumbler Lock Interlocking Pins Multiple Axes Tumblers Wafer Tumbler Key Accountability “The use of a single Grand Master combination for any mechanical locking system is not a sound security practice.” Electromagnetic Lock Electro-Mechanical Locks (breakaway strikes) Electronic Lock (Crash bars) Dial Type Combination Locks (Safe Locks) Alarm sensors:  Alarm sensors Alarm sensors Perimeter or point of entry Area Object Or Electro-mechanical Foil Switches Wire and Screen Detectors Pressure Mats Alarm sensors (Cont.):  Alarm sensors (Cont.) Sound wave-Microwave Ultrasonic Detectors Capacitance (Safe Detection Mainly) Vibration (Typically installed inside of safe or controlled areas.) Audio (Glass break detectors) Light (Infra-red Beam detectors) Other Pressure Thermal Chemical Sensor Integration:  Sensor Integration Types of Systems Local Alarm Central Station Direct Connection Proprietary Engineering Design:  Engineering Design Protection Improvement Patrol Reduction CCTV and Personal Reduction The Automated Security System Centrally- Controlled Systems Control Center Equipment Costs Personnel Control Identification Access Monitoring Sensors Supervision of Protection Personnel Time and Attendance Recording Programming the Computer Engineering Design (Cont.):  Engineering Design (Cont.) System Expansion The Control Center Emergency Power Standby Power Continuous Power The System Design Task System Objective System and Subsystem Task Relationship The Vulnerabilities Analysis Determination of Functional Countermeasures Countermeasures Network Relationships Subsystem Importance Complete Functional Statement Engineering Design (Cont.):  Engineering Design (Cont.) Development of a Complete Functional Specification Elements of a Typical Functional Specification General Requirements Bid or Cost Proposal Relevant Standards Subsystem Description Summaries of Devices Alternate Approaches Evaluation of Proposals Responsive to Functional Specification Selection of the Supplier and Negotiation of the System Contract Communications:  Communications Line Protection Wire Transmission of Alarm and Audio Signals Loop Point to Point Multiplexing Optical Fiber Video Transmission by Wire Radio Radio-Telephone Cellular Telephone Radio Interference Microwave Transmissions Light Interconnection Communication Security Communications (Cont.):  Communications (Cont.) Scramblers Frequency inverters Bandsplitters Rolling Bandsplitters Frequency or Phase Modulators Masking Vocoder Rolling Codes Digital Coding and Encryption Identification:  Identification To include or exclude someone or something from a group (employee, police officer , welfare recipient) To grant or Deny admittance To Issue or Withhold material or information To permit, Deny or qualify in some way a privilege Identification (Cont.):  Identification (Cont.) Security Applications of Access Control Permit or deny entrance to or presence in a given place. Increase or reduce the rate or density of movement to, from or with in a defined place. Protect persons, materials, or information against unauthorized observation or removal. Prevent injury to persons or damage to things. Performance Requirements It is valid. It is reliable It is easy to use. It should be resistive to surreptitious substitution or counterfeiting. It should be rugged and long-lived. Identification (Cont.):  Identification (Cont.) Performance Criteria It should be physical adequate. It should be valid and reliable If mechanical or electro-mechanical, it should be easily maintained. Manual Access Control Systems Personal Recognition Prior Familiarity Opportunity to observe Frequency of observation Verifiable Authorization Controllable Identification (Cont.):  Identification (Cont.) Document Criteria Obviously distinctive Resistive to surreptitious changes Watermark Laminate the document. Holograms Document Criteria Cont.) Unique to the authorized holder Photograph Description of holder Positive if coded or access Adaptable for display wearing. Of limited valid period. Access Control:  Access Control Automated Personnel Identification and Control A device or artifact which can be possessed, such as a key or coded card Information which can be remembered, such as a personal identification number (PIN) and/or A uniquely personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, voice pattern, signature characteristics or retinal vascular pattern - the biometric approach. Access Control (Cont.):  Access Control (Cont.) Coded Card System Elements The card or token. The sensing or point of entry device. The control processor The communications links between those two:and The local or central database. Access Control (Cont.):  Access Control (Cont.) Magnetic Stripe ANSI/ ISO 7810 and 7811/2 Track 1 used by International Air Traffic Association (IATA) Track 2 used By American Bankers Association (ABA) Coercivity 300 oersteds (early card system usually) 4000 oersteds Encoded data is read when the card is passed over the reader head. Insertion reader Swipe reader Watermark (usually on Track 3 or 4) Access Control (Cont.):  Access Control (Cont.) Magnetic Matrix Advantages Cards and readers are relatively inexpensive Card codes are user changeable. The card life is fairly long. There is a low read error rate Disadvantages Cards can be duplicated. Interference from other magnetic energy fields may occur. Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Optical Matrix (Transparent Bar Code) Advantages Low cost Difficult to counterfeit A low read error rate. Avoidance of electromagnetic interference. A relatively long life for the card and reader. Disadvantages Cannot be user coded Vulnerable to obscuring markings on card or dirt/dust in reader Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Hollerith Code (Hole Pattern) Advantages very inexpensive Large coding capacity No read errors Not vulnerable to electromagnetic interference Disadvantages Codes not user changeable Easy to duplicate Short card life Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Electrical Matrix Advantages None Disadvantages Not durable Easily Decoded Not user Changeable Bulky Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Capacitance Code Advantages Diffcult to read or counterfeit Low cost Disadvantages User cannot change codes Limited data carrying capacity Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Proximity Code Advantages Hands-free operation Low maintenance Difficult to decode or counterfeit Disadvantages Limited data coding capability. Bulky Substantially higher cost per card Codes are not user changeable Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Wiegand Coding Advantages Highly secure and resistive to alteration or counterfeiting. Durable cards. Not vulnerable to radio frequency or electromagnetic interference. Disadvantages Cards are expensive Codes not user changeable Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) Bar Coding Advantages Inexpensive Cards and readers have long live A large amount of data can be coded A low error rate Disadvantages Can be easily decoded and reproduced Access Control (Cont..):  Access Control (Cont..) BioMetric Access Fingerprint Identification Speech Identification Hand Geometry Handwriting Retinal Scan Detection of Weapons and Metal Metal Detectors X-ray Detectors Detection of Explosives Vapor Trace Detection Electron Detection Parking and Traffic Control:  Parking and Traffic Control Vehicular Access Driveways and Ramps Vehicle Checkpoints Locally Operated Remotely Operated Signs and Placards On-Premises Vehicle Safety Vehicle Identification and Registration Identifying Employee Vehicles Identifying Delivery Vehicles Identifying General Visitors The Goal - All Vehicles Identified Parking and Traffic Control (Cont..):  Parking and Traffic Control (Cont..) “It is suggested that as many vehicles as possible be assigned general parking authorization and as few as possible be given reserved parking.” General On-Premises Parking Lot Layout Smaller-than-Standard Cars Larger-than-Standard Vehicles Reserved On-Premises Parking Lot or Area Control General Areas Oversubscription Mechanized Control Differential Counter Visitor Parking Parking and Traffic Control (Cont..):  Parking and Traffic Control (Cont..) Violations and Sanctions Parking Area Censuses Personal Safety (Emergency Stations0 Dogs for Protection:  Dogs for Protection Characteristics of Dog Behavior and Motivation Senses Smell Hearing Sight Touch Intelligence Sensitivity Over Sensitive Dog Under Sensitive Dog Moderately Sensitive Dog Energy Dogs for Protection (Cont..):  Dogs for Protection (Cont..) Aggressiveness Over Aggressiveness Under Aggressiveness Moderately Aggressiveness Willingness Motivation Dogs are used for Tracking Detection of Drugs, Explosives and other substances Protection or Patrol of an area alone Protection of and area with handler Guarding or a holding a person in a location Aggressive attack Dogs for Protection (Cont..):  Dogs for Protection (Cont..) Care Of Dogs Kennels Noise Drainage Water Supply Fire Protection Lighting, Ventilation and Heat Areas Relating to Kennels (Dog Runs) Sanitation Maintenance Feeding Area Dogs for Protection (Cont..):  Dogs for Protection (Cont..) Grooming Inspections Eyes Ears Nose Mouth Feet Skin and Hair Limbs Genitals Anal Region Temperature Body Functions Attitude

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