Published on April 26, 2014
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, SENSORY, PERCEPTION, COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Reported by: Angelica Cyril C. Adivoso, RN MA BIOLOGY EDUCATION
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT FROM BIRTH First month: weight may drop after birth but will be regained quickly hand, arm, leg, and rooting movements are all reflex motions head flops if not supported focuses eyes at 18 to 45 cm stares at high contrast patterns and objects but does not reach recognizes mother’s voice startles at noise Second month: muscles relax and twitch less lifts head about 45 degrees while lying on tummy hands start to unfold may reach and grasp an object for a short time eyes move in unison and can track close moving objects may roll over one way
Third month: stretches out arms and legs rolls over from back to side holds head up to search for sounds and movement discovers feet and hands holds objects longer swipes with arms briefly bears weight on legs responds to detailed, high-contrast objects cuts first tooth (3rd to 6th month or later) Fourth month: stands up and holds weight with help rolls from front to side lifts head about 90 degrees sits with arms propped reaches for objects holds hands together
Fifth month: rolls over from front to back grabs toes and feet wiggles forward on floor reaches with a good aim transfers objects from hand to hand Sixth month: holds head steady sits with back straight when propped grasps small objects and studies them rolls in both directions understands that objects may be hiding behind another
Infants still take a nap in the morning and afternoon. They start to eat and sleep at regular times. They eat three meals a day and drink from bottles at various times. They start using a cup and a spoon to feed themselves. Infants can sit alone. They crawl with their stomach touching the floor, and they creep on their hands and knees. By eight months, they can reach for and hold objects.
They can pick up objects with their thumb and forefinger and let objects go (drop things). They start to throw things. They pull up to stand, they stand holding onto furniture, and they can walk when led. By the time they are 12 months old, most babies can weigh three times what they weighed at birth and gain about an inch per month in length. The average infant at one year may be between 26–30 inches long.
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT 0-5 months Infants babble, coo and gurgle. They study their hands and feet. They turn to locate the source of sounds. Infants can focus on and follow moving objects with their eyes. They explore things with their mouths. They put anything they can hold into their mouths. They cry in different ways to express hunger, anger and pain. They forget about objects that they cannot see.
6 – 12 months Infants wave bye-bye and play pat-a-cake. They respond to simple directions. They look for things not in sight. Infants make sounds like "dada" and "mama." They begin to pretend by acting out familiar activities. They make sounds that can be understood by people who know them well. They repeat actions that cause a response such as when given a rattle, they will shake it and laugh. By 12 months, many infants speak their first understandable words.
SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Vision is one of the least-developed senses at birth. The American Optometric Association reports that "babies learn to see over a period of time, much like they learn to walk and talk." Focusing the eyes, moving them as desired and using them together are learned skills. When a baby is born, his focal length is roughly 8 to 10 inches from his face-- which is the location of mom's face when the infant is nursing. The American Optometric Association explains that by 3 months of age, babies begin to visually track moving objects.
Hearing develops when the baby is still in the womb. The New York Times reports that unlike vision, the sense of hearing is mature at birth. Infants have distinct preferences for certain sounds. They startle at sharp abrasive noises and become soothed at the sound of mom's voice.
Taste and Smell babies detect three distinct tastes-- sweet, sour and bitter-- right after birth. Curiously, infants are unable to taste salt. UCLA psychology researcher Phil Kellman reports that infants will drink just as much salt water as fresh water. He speculates that salt receptors on the tongue are not developed until the baby is 4 months old. The sense of smell develops largely after birth, but babies recognize certain smells, such as their mother's scent, within the first week of life.
Touch Sensitive to hot and cold temperature Responds positively to love, warmth and security it percieves when cuddle, held or touch They are also sensitive to pain.
TESTING According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, as of 2010, audio screening of a newborn before he leaves the hospital is becoming more common. Without this initial screening, hearing deficits are not usually detected until about 14 months of age. Such undetected deficits result in problems with language development and learning. Testing the vision of infants under 3 years involves a physical examination of the eye and determining whether the child's vision can fix on a particular object and track it when it is moving. Failure to develop this ability by 3 months raises the possibility of eye or brain abnormalities. The American Optometric Association recommends having the first eye exam at age 6 months.
COGNITIVE DEVELOMENT Piaget is a Swiss psychologist His theory is similar to Freud and Erikson Defined 4 stages within each stage are finer units or schemas.
It focuses on development, rather than learning per se, so it does not address learning of information or specific behaviours. 4 stages Sensorimotor Preoperational thought Concrete Operational Thought Formal Operational Thought Primary means the child’s own body. Circular reaction refers to the repetitive behaviour. Secondary means separates from the child’s body.
Stage of Development Age Span Nursing Implications Sensorimotor Neonatal Reflex 1 month Behaviour entirely reflexive Primary circular reaction 1-4 month Hand- mouth and ear eye coordination, beginning of intention is present, enjoys sucking; activity: rattle Secondary circular reaction 4- 8 months Infant learns to recognize; memory traces are present, activity: mirror. Peek- a - boo Coordination of secondary reactions 8-12 months Can search for and retrieve toys that disappear from view. Infants experiences separation anxiety. Toys: colour boxes so experimenting and learning
REFERENCES: Maternal and Child Health Nursing by Adele Pillitteri, 2004 http://www.bestchance.gov.bc.ca/you-and-your-baby- 0-6/baby-development/introduction-to-baby- development/index.html http://www.livestrong.com/article/230620-sensory- development-in-infants/#ixzz2QXbAIoRs http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html#sthash.B 6tleWVX.dpuf http://urbanext.illinois.edu/babysitting/age-infant.html
Perceptual and Motor Development Domain ... and interpreting sensory information. Perception is multimodal, ... “Motor/Physical Development: ...
1. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, SENSORY, PERCEPTION, COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Reported by: Angelica Cyril C. Adivoso, RN MA BIOLOGY EDUCATION
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