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phylum porifers and cnideria

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Information about phylum porifers and cnideria
Education

Published on December 9, 2008

Author: greendivers

Source: authorstream.com

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PHYLUM: PORIFERA e.g. Sponges : PHYLUM: PORIFERA e.g. Sponges TYPICAL SPONGE FEEDINGWater flowing through sponges provides food and oxygen, as well as a means for waste removal. This flow is actively generated by the beating of flagella on cells lining the pores. Sponges are capable of regulating the amount of flow through their bodies by the constriction of various openings. In general, sponges feed by filtering bacteria from the water that passes through them. Some sponges trap roughly 90 percent of all bacteria in the water they filter. : TYPICAL SPONGE FEEDINGWater flowing through sponges provides food and oxygen, as well as a means for waste removal. This flow is actively generated by the beating of flagella on cells lining the pores. Sponges are capable of regulating the amount of flow through their bodies by the constriction of various openings. In general, sponges feed by filtering bacteria from the water that passes through them. Some sponges trap roughly 90 percent of all bacteria in the water they filter. Slide 4:  SPONGE REPRODUCTION Sponges reproduce by both asexual and sexual means. Most poriferans that reproduce by sexual means are hermaphrodites and produce eggs and sperm at different times. Sometimes sperm is produced in masses so dense that the sponges appear to be smoking. Sponges that reproduce asexually produce buds. Slide 5: INTERESTING FACT: THE CARNIVOROUS EXCEPTIONOne Family of sponges are especially unusual in that they typically feed by capturing and digesting whole animals. That's right, these sponges are actually carnivorous! They capture small crustaceans with their spicules (skeleton) which act like Velcro when they come in contact with the crustacean exoskeletons. Cells then migrate around the helpless prey and digestion takes place extracellularly. PHYLUM: PORIFERA SUMMARY : PHYLUM: PORIFERA SUMMARY Includes Sponges Sessile Filter Feeders Skeleton made of spongin No organ systems Reproduction sexual and asexual SEXUAL REPRODUCTION : SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual reproduction involves male and female sex cells called GAMETES joining together (FERTILIZATION) to form a ZYGOTE or EMBRYO. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION : ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring from a single parent. GLOSSARY WORDS : GLOSSARY WORDS Sessile Filter Feeder Flagella Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Hermaphrodite Budding Binary Fission Gametes Fertilization Zygote Embryo PHYLUM: CNIDARIA e.g. Jellyfish, Sea Anenome, Coral, Hydra"Cnidarian" means "stinging creature" in Latin : PHYLUM: CNIDARIA e.g. Jellyfish, Sea Anenome, Coral, Hydra"Cnidarian" means "stinging creature" in Latin STRUCTURE : STRUCTURE Consists of a sac containing a digestive cavity with a single opening that functions as both mouth and anus surrounded by tentacles. Body in the form of a Medusa or a Polyp. It has radial symmetry, meaning that whichever way it is cut along its central axis, the resulting halves would always be mirror images of each other. Simple digestive, muscle and nerve net systems. All cnidarians are carnivorous, with tentacles active in prey capture using specialized stinging cells called nematocysts. MEDUSA AND POLYP : MEDUSA AND POLYP Medusa has the tentacles facing downward. Polyp has the tentacles facing upward. LIFECYCLE : LIFECYCLE THE DEADLY BOX JELLYFISH : THE DEADLY BOX JELLYFISH In the last 50 years, Box Jellyfish have been responsible for 5567 deaths worldwide but only 2 deaths in Australia THE PAIN : THE PAIN The severity of the pain from an Irukandji jellyfish sting is apparent in the 2005 Discovery Channel documentary Killer Jellyfish on Carukia barnesi, when two Australian researchers (Jamie Seymour and Teresa Carrette) are stung. Even under the "maximum dose of morphine" Teresa remarked that she "wished she could rip her skin off", and is later seen writhing uncontrollably from the pain while lying on her hospital bed. In one scene, Teresa's feet are shown contorting and digging into the bed. Jamie, at his worst, is also seen writhing in pain, curled up in a ball and barely able to speak. Jamie said he wished that he was stung by Chironex fleckeri instead since "the pain goes away in 20 minutes or you die". She later commented that this unbearable pain lasted for hours, and added that "I didn't think it was possible for anyone to endure that level of pain without turning into a vegetable". INTERESTING FACT:A JELLYFISH THAT SEES! : INTERESTING FACT:A JELLYFISH THAT SEES! Box Jellyfish are known to be the only jellyfish with an active visual system, consisting of 24 eyes located on the center of each side of its bell. The eyes occur in clusters on the four sides of the cube-like body. Sixteen are simply pits of light-sensitive pigment but one pair in each cluster is surprisingly complex, with a sophisticated lens, retina, iris and cornea, all in an eye only 0.1 millimeters across. The lenses on these eyes have been analyzed and could form distortion free images. Despite the perfection of the lenses, the retinas of the eyes lie closer to the lens than the optimum focal distance, resulting in a blurred image. It is not currently known how this visual information is processed by Cubozoa, as they lack a central nervous system, although they seem to have four brain-like organs.[5] PHYLUM: CNIDARIA SUMMARY : PHYLUM: CNIDARIA SUMMARY Includes Jellyfish, Sea Anenome, Corals & Hydras Body form in a Medusa or Polyp Radial Symmetry Simple organ systems but no skeleton Carnivorous using tentacles with nematocysts to catch prey Reproduction sexual and asexual GLOSSARY WORDS : GLOSSARY WORDS Radial Symmetry Nematocyst Carnivore Polyp Medusa

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