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Science-Technology

Published on March 2, 2014

Author: ramabhau

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Dr. R. T. Patil , Ex Director CIPHET, Ludhiana; Group Director, TIT-MBA, and Director, Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal (MP) POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY-HERBINGER OF NATIONS PROSPERITY Production & Post Harvest Scenario: Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 14.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 75% of the population India produces about 257.44 million tons of food grains and 77 and 150 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world Post harvest losses are 3-18% amounting to Rs. 45000 crores Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every Rs. 10 lakh investment Price Difference : Price Difference Wheat - Rs 12/kg Wheat Flour Rs. 16-18/kg Fortified Flour Rs. 20-25/kg Oil seed – Rs 35/kg Oil Rs. 70/kg Paddy – Rs 12/kg Rice – Rs. 25/kg Mung- Rs. 20/kg Mung dal – Rs. 60/kg Maize-Rs.13/kg Maize flour-Rs. 16/kg Tomato-Rs. 5/kg Tomato ketchup-Rs 50-80/kg Fruit- Rs. 15-20/kg Fruits Bar-Rs. 200/kg Fruit Juice- Rs. 35/litre Coriander -Rs. 80/kg Coriander Powder-Rs. 200/kg Turmeric-Rs.65/kg Turmeric Powder –Rs. 200/kg Chili- Rs. 200/kg Chili Powder-Rs. 300/kg Black pepper-Rs. 100/kg B Pepper Powder- Rs.300/kg Chana - Rs. 28/kg Chana Dal-Rs. 35/kg Besan- Rs. 40/kg Vegetables-Rs.3-5/kg Minimal Processed/Ready to Cook Rs. 25-30/kg High Value Products from Wastes: High Value Products from Wastes Pectin from fruit and vegetable peels Lycopene from tomato peel and oil from seeds Bio-colour from arhar husk and used flowers A low calorie sweetner (xyletol) from corn cob and bagasse Beta amylase and Xylanase from cereal bran and husk Enzymes (protease, laccase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) from green gram husk and wheat germ Gelatin / Peptides from slaughter house waste Dietary fibres from fruit pomace Bio-plastics from tapioca Aniti oxidents and phenolic compounds from cereal brans and pulse husks Reasons for Losses : Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the processing- - Better the Post Harvest Management - - Lower Will Be Losses Post Harvest Activities in SITU: Post Harvest Activities in SITU Can provide processed food of highest quality at affordable cost to consumers Help environment by processing food in production catchment with least food miles Ensure traceability of raw materials used for processed product hence great for export and elite urban market. Help effective backward linkage with farmers for processing their raw produce Shorten the supply chain, increase the profitability of farmers and ultimately increase in GDP from agriculture and reduce poverty Reduce post harvest losses and increased availability of by products for further processing. Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management : Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Food Grains Harvesting at Maturity Proper threshing Post thresh cleaning Proper drying Safe storage Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling Value Addition to Main & Byproducts Agro Entrepreneurship : Agro Entrepreneurship Agro Entrepreneurship : Agro Entrepreneurship Agro Entrepreneurship : Agro Entrepreneurship Equipment and Gadgets: Equipment and Gadgets Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree : Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree  Eating quality and postharvest shelf life of ripe mango depends on its maturity at harvest Change of peel color and total soluble solids (TSS) are indicative parameters to measure maturity of mango. A maturity index was defined based on TSS and colour values. The model was developed to predict maturity using colourimeter Colour and maturity index chart were also developed to determine maturity This technique can be employed to sort the mangoes at export port, big mandies and in processing plant. Capacity About 100 mangoes per hour Fruit Saving Gadgets: Fruit Saving Gadgets After plucking from tree, fruit is thrown in the trough of fruit saver and collected in a box/container. The fruits are graded on size basis at appropriate places. Smallest grade fruit is collected first and largest grade is collected in last Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter: Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter It is an useful to de-stem the comb from the banana bunch. It replaces the use of sickle, which was much labor and time consuming. It is safe for human and banana hands and can be used for faster work. 100 to 120 banana bunches can be de-handed per hour. Saves 10 to 15 banana-fingers per bunch (i. e. 2 to 8 % reduction in cutting losses of banana fruits) CIPHET Tomato Grader: CIPHET Tomato Grader The tomatoes roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.25000.00 PowerPoint Presentation: Higher aril extraction capacity; around 5.0 quintal per hour Aril extraction/separation efficiency is in the range of 90-94% Mechanical damage received by arils is only 1-2% Mechanical Pomegranate Aril Extractor including Hand Tool Capacity 10 kg/h Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products: Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products Micro-processor based temperature controller to regulates the drying temperature. Minimises the loss of vitamins and essential oil of the products and save energy in drying. For blanched Amla drying, the dryer reduced vitamin-C loss up to 87% as compared to the open sun drying. The products such as sliced fruits and vegetables is dried in 20-25 h and medicinal herbs and leaf crops are 12-20 h. The cost of the prototype is Rs. 1,50,000 and capacity is 30 kg/batch. PowerPoint Presentation: Sitaphal Peeling Machine Removing the sitaphal seeds and pulp automatically without disturbing the pulp texture. Capacity: 120Kg/hr, Efficiency: 94% pulp recovery, Coarse / Intact Pulp recovery: 70-72%; Fine Pulp recovery: 28-30%. The machine is licensed to NEXTGEN Drying System, Pune Emerging Technologies: Emerging Technologies Emerging Technologies in Food Processing: Emerging Technologies in Food Processing High Pressure Processing Microwave heat processing Ohmic heat processing Micronisation Irradiation Extrusion Processing Biotechnology High Pressure Processing: High Pressure Processing HPP can replace conventional processes, while maintaining safety and quality. Effects of HPP are generally marked as retention of color, flavor and fresh appearance Microwave heat processing: Microwave heat processing Effective for inactivating enzymes, reduced indirect heating requirement and water use Result in improved product flavour, colour, texture and nutritive value. Ohmic heat processing: Ohmic heat processing Alternating electrical current is passed through a food sample. Internal energy generation in foods. Produces an inside-out heating pattern at different frequencies than MW. Uniformly heats foods with different densities. Micronisation: Micronisation Short time exposure of electromagnetic radiation at a wavelength of 1.8-3.4  m m, Promotes internal heating and increased digestibility Instantized product due to increased ability to uptake of water. Starch is gelatinized, seed microstructure becomes more penetrable and thus short cooking times. Irradiation: Irradiation Gamma - irradiation reduces antinutritional factors Reduces the phytic acid content and flatulence causing oligosaccharides in leguminous crops Helps improved keeping quality of food grains and flours Extrusion Processing: Extrusion Processing Extruded Products from Coarse Cereals: Extruded Products from Coarse Cereals Extrusion is a high temperature short time processed to produce expanded & textured products CIPHET has modified the low cost collet extruder to produce expanded ready to eat snacks using rice and pulse brokens. The cost of the unit is Rs 2 Lakh, capacity 25 kg/h, cost of accessories Rs. 2 lakh and thus earn about minimum of Rs. 50,000 per month Biotechnology: Biotechnology Fermenter of 30 litre capacity with controls for temperature, pH, DO and CO 2 monitoring installed at CIPHET, Ludhiana Bioprocessing Technologies for Crop Residues: Bioprocessing Technologies for Crop Residues Efficient process for production of ethanol Production of enzymes such as cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and protease Production of industrially important products such as citric acid Single Cell Protein ( SCP ) production Safe Transport and Storage: Safe Transport and Storage Mobile Cool Chamber : Mobile Cool Chamber The insulated box was designed such that it could hold 8 plastic crates of size 540x360x295 mm in two layer of four each Capacity of storage was 100 kg of fruits with 80% filling of each plastic crates Costs around Rs. 18,000-20,000/- Low cost unit saves the fruits from exposure to sunlight and preserves the quality. Ventilated Rail Transport : Ventilated Rail Transport Ventilated rail cars have been developed by NHB where the slotted holes were provided on front bottom, front and rear ends to accommodate vertical forced air and natural convection due to holes at the bottom. At least 15% of total floor area was perforated and labyrinths provided for the protection from rain where ever essential. The design provides 5% area at the bottom and 10% area on the top at both from and rear ends. The rail trasnports the material as fresh over very long distances Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables : Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 75000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room. CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure : CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh. Technology Packages: Technology Packages PowerPoint Presentation: Minimal Processing of Vegetables Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables: Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables Process Technology for Guava Bar: Process Technology for Guava Bar Guava is perishable in nature and cannot be stored for more than two days during peak season. Guava can be processed into a number of products like fruits bar and beverage Fruits, which are rich in nutrients can be blended to improve its acceptability and flavor Guava bar acceptable even after 6 month of storage Composition: Moisture: 15%, Vitamin C: 120 mg/100g , Acidity: 1.08%, Reducing sugar: 14%, Non-reducing sugar: 46%, Weight of each bar: 5-10 g , KSM: 0.2% PowerPoint Presentation: OSMO-CONVECTIVE DEHYDRATION OF KINNOW SEGMENTS PROCESS KINNOW PEELING SEPARATING OF SEGMENTS REMOVAL OF SEEDS DIPPING IN 60 % SUGAR SYRUP FOR 6 h DRAINING OF SYRUP DRIED SEGMENTS (60 O C FOR 10-12 h) PowerPoint Presentation: Ready to Constitute Mustard Saag The green leaves are washed, drained and cut. The cut leaves are taken in the known proportion. The mixture of cut leaves and spices is cooked and then mashed to get smooth curry. The curry is then processed through various steps involving crushing, cooking, pulping, addition of edible flour, cold extrusion, drying, size reduction and packaging to attain mustard saag powder. The dried powder on mixing with lukewarm / hot water yield the inherent taste and odor of staple ingredients. PowerPoint Presentation: Green chili processing into powder and puree Chilies powder has higher nutrition and controlled pungency. The green chilies have more Vitamin C & A and antioxidant properties. About 130 g of green Chilies powder and 300 ml puree could be prepared from one kilogram of fresh green Chilies. The cost of the plant for the processing 200kg of green chilies per day is estimated at 713000/-. The break even point comes be 49.15% and pay back period 1.91 years 1kg of green chilies costing Rs. 15/-, the value added product of Rs. 70/- could be marketed. Chili Puree Green Chili Powder PowerPoint Presentation: Ready to Eat Vegetable Blended Meat Products Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Sandwich Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Nuggets Salient features of this technology are; 1) Utilization of indigenous equipment, 2) Efficient and economic use of vegetable by-products, 3) Substantive cost reduction of chicken products, 4) Improved products quality, sensory attributes and stability, 5) Low-cost and low fat chicken products could be prepared and 6) Increase in dietary fiber and natural antioxidants in the meat products The major cost factors in the chicken meat based value added products like fried-chicken, chicken nuggets are the price of raw meat, ingredients and imported equipment. The reduction in cost of production to more affordable level can be achieved by careful selection of ingredients, reformulation with unconventional food ingredients and using indigenously available equipment. Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products: Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products Kinnow Peel Face Pack Kinnow Peel Face Toner Kinnow peel is a major (30- 34 %) processing waste generated during Kinnow processing into juices. Rich source of Vitamin C, Carotenoids, limonene, antioxidants, micronutrients and antibacterial limonoids. The face mask/pack and face toner are a rich blend of major concentration of Kinnow peel extracts and other minor components as preservatives and sticking agents. The products possess very effective deep cleansing properties along with stringent, disinfectant and antiseptic action to protect facial skin from unwanted blemishes Examples: Examples PowerPoint Presentation: Chowdhary Made Agriculture Profitable with Value Addition in Rajasthan Kailash Chaudhary, Age 60 years Products: Aamla juice, amla powder, aloe vera juice, candies, squashes, pickles, sweets Exports to many countries Employment: Direct 30;Indirect 40 Established: 2004 Training and Technologies by CIPHET Turnover: > 1 crore Web: www.ksbiofoods.com Evaporative Cooled Room: Evaporative Cooled Room Surinder Singh Vill Jalalabad, Moga Punjab Profession: Vegetable Farmer Cold Room used for on-farm short term storage of fruits and vegetables Cost of structure: Rs 75,000 Recommendations: Recommendations Formulate National Post Harvest Management Policy with incentives for small scale units in rural areas. Unleash the vast entrepreneurial talent of our rural population by providing training and credit. Forge Public Private partnerships in this sector to develop infrastructure including food parks, cold storage, rural godowns, warehouses etc. Facilitate direct marketing by rural entrepreneurs & processors to consumers though modern Haats Reach international standards of food packaging, safety and quality and by compulsory appointment of food engg/tech in each food business. Vision for AMITY: Vision for AMITY E-newsletter of the centre to connect to national & international stakeholders Methods of Measuring Fruit & Vegetable Flavor, Color & Texture Workshop. Fruit Ripening & Retail Handling Workshop Postharvest Technology Short Course-sector wise like Food grain, Fruits & Vegetables, Aquaculture, Live products Fresh-Cut Products: Maintaining Quality and Safety Workshop Produce Safety Workshop. Agribusiness and Post-Harvest Management Certificate Course Food Quality & Safety Course for Managers Food Outlets Vision for AMITY: Vision for AMITY Initiating Collaborative Programmes with Galilee International Management Institute (GIMI) – Israel and Postharvest Technology Center - UC Davis Starting short courses in collaboration with sister institutes and industry Starting short courses for food outlet managers (if possible making it mandatory in consultation with food safety authority and ministry of food processing industries) Starting UG programme in Post Harvest Management in collaboration with Institute of Food Technology and Organic Agriculture PowerPoint Presentation: The Post Harvest Industries in Production Catchment has potential to Provide Urban-amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) through employment and income generation among the rural youth. Thank You

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