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PHSC1013 Reactions

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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Me_I

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PHSC 1013: Physical Science Reactions:  PHSC 1013: Physical Science Reactions Lecture Notes Download PDF Document Reactions.pdf Powerpoint Slides Reactions.ppt Protons and Electrons:  Protons and Electrons Acid-Base Reactions involve protons Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Reactions involve electrons Common Acids:  Common Acids Proton donors Acids tend to taste sour. Common Bases :  Common Bases Proton acceptors Bases tend to taste bitter. Acids (proton donors):  Acids (proton donors) Acids give up protons Proton weakly bonds to a water molecule to form the hydronium ion H3O+ in solution H(Acid) formula notation Bases (Proton acceptors) :  Bases (Proton acceptors) Bases accept protons hydroxide ion OH - in solution (Base)OH Hydronium Ion Formation:  Hydronium Ion Formation H3O+ HCl + H2O H+ + H2O + Cl- H+ + H2O H3O+ Strength (Concentration):  Strength (Concentration) HA + H2O H+ + A- + H2O A- + H3O+ Concentration of H3O+ ions in solution BOH + H2O OH- + B+ + H2O Concentration of OH- ions in solution Strength depends on extent of ionization in solution How readily does it form ions? pH of Water:  pH of Water Pure Water pH = 7.0 = percent hydronium ion concentration. H2O H3O+ + OH- + H2O There is always some amount of ionization that takes place in pure water. pH of Water:  pH of Water Pure Water pH = 7.0 = percent hydronium ion concentration. H2O H3O+ + OH- + H2O There is always some amount of ionization that takes place in pure water. The pH zero point is set at the concentration of H3O+ in pure water. Pure water is the calibration point. Concentration in Solution :  Concentration in Solution 1 Molar HCl = 1 mole of HCl in 1 liter of H2O Molecular weight (Molar mass) H = 1.008, Cl = 35.5 HCl = 36.5 grams/mole 36.5 grams HCl in 1 liter water Concentration in Solution :  Concentration in Solution 1 Molar HCl = 1 mole of HCl in 1 liter of H2O Molecular weight (Molar mass) H = 1.008, Cl = 35.5 HCl = 36.5 grams/mole 36.5 grams HCl in 1 liter water 0.1 Molar 36.5 grams HCl in 10 liters water OR 3.65 grams HCl in 1 liter water Concentration in Solution :  Concentration in Solution 1 Molar HCl = 1 mole of HCl in 1 liter of H2O 36.5 grams HCl in 1 liter water 0.1 Molar 36.5 grams HCl in 10 liters water OR 3.65 grams HCl in 1 liter water 2.0 Molar 36.5 grams HCl in 1/2 liter water 73 grams HCl in 1 liter water pH Scale :  pH Scale Pure Water pH = 7.0 neutral pH :  pH [H3O+] pH = - log[H3O+] 0.1 M 10-1 1 0.01 M 10-2 2 0.001 M 10-3 3 0.0001 M 10-4 4 pH = 7.0 is neutral 10-pH pH = % concentration of Hydronium ions in solution. Acid-Base Neutralization:  Acid-Base Neutralization HA + BOH H2O + A-B+ H(Acid) + (Base)OH AB is an ionic compound Acid-Base Neutralization:  Acid-Base Neutralization HA + BOH H2O + A-B+ H(Acid) + (Base)OH AB is an ionic compound HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl NaCl ionic solid HNO3 + KOH H2O + KNO3 KNO3 ionic solid Reduction - Oxidation:  Reduction - Oxidation Reduction: the gain of electrons Oxidation: the loss of electrons. Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Reactions involve the exchange of electrons. Combination (addition, synthesis):  Combination (addition, synthesis) These reactions involve combining reactants in simple ways to produce something new. The ancient alchemists dream. Its not straw into gold, but it will do. Combustion:  Combustion Combustion reactions almost always involve oxygen. Combustion is a form of a combination reaction or synthesis. All are exothermic, providing energy, some quite explosive. Decomposition:  Decomposition Decomposition reactions are like taking apart the tinker toys or legos, breaking things down into simpler pieces. Reaction Types:  Reaction Types Oxidation - Reduction:  Oxidation - Reduction Common Oxidizers gain electrons take electrons from Common Reducers lose electrons supply electrons to Oxidizers and Reducers:  Oxidizers and Reducers e- Redox Reaction Types:  Redox Reaction Types Single Replacement Double Replacement Replacement Reactions:  Replacement Reactions Zn + CuCl2 Cu + ZnCl2:  Zn + CuCl2 Cu + ZnCl2 Single Replacement Zn replaces Cu Cu++ + 2Cl- Processing Iron Ore:  Processing Iron Ore 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C 4 Fe + 3 CO2 The iron (Fe) is in bonds with 3 oxygen atoms to supply electrons. The Fe in the ore gains electrons supplied by the carbon, Oxygen bonds are broken and the electrons Reduce the Fe. Rusting:  Rusting Fe + H2O Fe++ + 2e- (ions form in solution) O2 + 2 H2O + 4e- OH- (reacts with air) 2 Fe+++ + 6 OH- Fe2O3 + 3 H2O (forms rust) Reactivity of Metals:  Reactivity of Metals Some elements have a stronger ability to hold other electrons. Li K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Pt Reactivity React with water React with steam React with strong acid Electroplating:  Electroplating A metal will replace any metal ion in solution that is ABOVE it in the reactivity series. Ag + CuCl2 Nil, Nada, Nix, Not, Nor, No, Negative 2 Al + CuCl2 2 AlCl3 + 3 Cu Al foil and Silver spoon in CuCl2 Chrome Plating:  Chrome Plating Electrolysis:  Electrolysis Reactivity of Metals:  Reactivity of Metals Some elements have a stronger ability to hold other electrons. Li K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Pt Reactivity React with water React with steam React with strong acid Lemon Batteries:  Lemon Batteries Zn Cu Mg Citric Acid Zn + Cu 2 (Zn + Cu) Zn + Zn Zn + Mg Lead Storage Battery:  Lead Storage Battery Lead Oxide, Lead and Sulfuric Acid are consumed. PbO2 + Pb + 2 H2SO4 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2O + electricity Supply a current (via the alternator) and recharge the battery. PbO2 + Pb + 2 H2SO4 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2O + electricity Electric Current:  Electric Current H2SO4 + H2O H3O+ + HSO4- Pb + HSO4- PbSO4 + H+ + 2e- 2e- + 3 H+ + PbO2 + HSO4 - PbSO4 + 2 H2O Pb PbO2 H2O HSO4- H+ 2e- Dr. Robertson PHSC 1013: Physical Science:  Dr. Robertson PHSC 1013: Physical Science Return to Physical Science

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