Phrases & Clauses (older, combined presentation)

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Information about Phrases & Clauses (older, combined presentation)
Education

Published on September 12, 2008

Author: tccampa

Source: authorstream.com

Phrases & Clauses : Phrases & Clauses What are they? How are they different? The main difference: : The main difference: Phrases DO NOT have BOTH a subject & a verb Clauses DO HAVE BOTH a subject & a verb PHRASES:4 Types : PHRASES:4 Types No Subject & Verb 1: Prepositional Phrase : 1: Prepositional Phrase Prepositional Phrase = Preposition + Noun from the house = from (prep) + (noun) the house He ran quickly from the house. behind a rock = behind (prep) + (noun) a rock I saw my teacher behind a rock. Slide 5: during the movie about his messy room around the track and near the field 1: Prepositional Phrase 2: Participial Phrase : 2: Participial Phrase A participle is a verb used as another part of speech. Participles are easy to recognize: they end in –ing or –ed. For example: running water, baked apples, loving husband, loaded gun, etc… 2: Participial PhraseMore examples: : looking closely, staying up all night studying the History book 2: Participial PhraseMore examples: 3: Infinitive Phrase : 3: Infinitive Phrase To + verb = Infinitive phrase If you have ever studied a foreign language, you might remember that verbs are always studied w/the infinitive first: to love (the infinitive form) I love you love he/she/it loves we love you love they love 3: Infinitive Phrase cont’d : 3: Infinitive Phrase cont’d Infinitive phrases begin with the infinitive form of the verb Examples: to run a mile to start over to do homework all night to win the contest to wake up early 4: Noun Phrases : 4: Noun Phrases Adjective + Noun = Noun Phrase The tall building A smoky, crowded room Screaming, half-naked toddlers Nests of yellow and red striped snakes Now for a small warning… : Now for a small warning… One word can make phrases a little tricky: : One word can make phrases a little tricky: to The tricky “to” : The tricky “to” The word “to” is found in BOTH prepositional and infinitive phrases CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! : CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! to the football stadium (prepositional) to the teacher (prepositional) to run a mile to finish my homework Prepositional Phrases: Infinitive Phrases: Clauses: 3 types : Clauses: 3 types Have BOTH Subject & Verb Independent Clause(aka: SENTENCE or MAIN CLAUSE) : Independent Clause(aka: SENTENCE or MAIN CLAUSE) Clause #1: Independent Clause : Independent Clause Independent clauses have a subject & verb and can stand alone. Examples: The doctor finished the examination. Students leave campus after class. dependent Clause(aka: the ”Cliffhanger”) : dependent Clause(aka: the ”Cliffhanger”) Clause #2: Dependent Clause : Dependent Clause Dependent clauses have subjects & verbs, but they cannot stand alone Dependent Clause : Dependent Clause Dependent clauses usually begin with subordinating conjunctions such as although, because, when, since, if, unless… Examples: Because I left early If we find my notebook Subordinating conjunction subject verb… Dependent Clauses : Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses require a complete thought to make them complete… Written alone, dependent clauses create suspense for what’s to come…like a “cliffhanger”: Dependent Clauses : Dependent Clauses Example of a dependent clause: Because a rattlesnake has made a home under our bed… Dependent Clauses : Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses often begin or end sentences: Because a rattlesnake has made a home under our bed… (dependent clause) + We purchased a mongoose to sleep with us. (sentence/main clause) Dependent Clauses : Dependent Clauses Because a rattlesnake has made a home under our bed, we purchased a mongoose to sleep with us. Dependent Clauses : Dependent Clauses We purchased a mongoose to sleep with us because a rattlesnake has made a home under our bed. Examples of Dependent Clauses : Examples of Dependent Clauses Although I spent three hours studying, Because the children had hidden the key, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.) Examples of Dependent Clauses : Examples of Dependent Clauses If students sign up early, Unless the weather prevents travel, When everyone finished dinner, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.) Examples of Dependent Clauses : Examples of Dependent Clauses After the schedule is published, Before a hurricane hits an area, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.) Relative Clause (who, Which, That ) : Relative Clause (who, Which, That ) Clause #3: Relative Clauses : Relative Clauses Relative clauses are easy to recognize. They begin with WHO, WHICH, or THAT. Relative Clauses : Relative Clauses They are not questions, but part of sentences. Relative Clauses : Relative Clauses Examples: Martin, who usually finishes first, was unable to beat my record. Pasta, which used to be included in most diets, has been replaced by high-protein foods. Toys that the dog chewed up must be thrown away. Now for another small warning… : Now for another small warning… 2 words can make clauses a little tricky: : 2 words can make clauses a little tricky: Before After CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! : CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! before and after can appear in either prepositional phrases or dependent clauses. CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! : CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! Prepositional phrases: after the storm before the alarm after lunch before my nap after work before the holiday CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! : CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! Dependent clauses: after the storm ended before the alarm rang after we left work before the doctor arrived after I received your call before the judge makes his ruling Phrase & Clause Review : Phrase & Clause Review Phrase & Clause Review : Phrase & Clause Review Q: What is the main difference between phrases & clauses? Phrase & Clause Review : Phrase & Clause Review Answer: Phrases do not have both a subject and a verb… Clauses have both a subject and a verb. Phrase Review : Phrase Review Prepositional: above the clouds near my house along the shore Phrase Review : Phrase Review Participial: leaving work early sleeping until noon celebrating the holidays filled with liquid Phrase Review : Phrase Review Infinitive: to walk the dog to play the piano to watch our favorite TV show Phrase Review : Phrase Review Noun Phrases: a blue glass fifty wild iguanas a comfortable bed Clause Review : Clause Review Independent/Main Clause: (Sentence) Broccoli is my favorite food. Clause Review : Clause Review Dependent Clause: Because broccoli is my favorite food Clause Review Clause Review : Clause Review Relative Clause: which is my favorite food Be sure to know your phrases & clauses! : Be sure to know your phrases & clauses! End of presentation.

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