Published on April 26, 2014
PHP at Density and Scale ...with security and consistent performance
About Me ● Four Kitchens ● Drupal.org ● Pressflow ● Pantheon ● systemd
Broadly Defining Security Your data... 1. Is accessible to the right people (access) 2. Isn’t to anyone else (access) 3. Is usable (quality of service)
Topics ● Performance ○ Socket activation ○ Automount/autofs ○ cgroups ○ “Customer Experience Monitor” ○ Migration ● Security ○ Users ○ Namespaces ○ Defense-in-depth ○ Non-disruptive fixes
Challenge: PHP-FPM Overhead ● Using a full PHP-FPM instance per stack ○ Isolated opcode cache space ○ Defense-in-depth against PHP issues ○ Low-impact reconfiguration ● Idle PHP-FPMs take ~0.5% of a core each ○ At 10k dense, that’s over six cores ● Initial solution used error capture in nginx ○ Masked real failures to connect to PHP-FPM ○ Slower than necessary ○ Production use of HTTP 418 (arguably a bonus)
Traditional server sockets: overview ... nginx TCP 80 Client nginx TCP 81 If you want a service available, the daemon has to be running.
Socket activation: overview systemd TCP 80 Client TCP 81 nginxfd=3 Only a socket in systemd has to run for service availability.
Socket activation: details ● systemd squats on all listeners ○ Looks for incoming traffic with EPOLL ○ Starts the services/containers on-demand ○ Passes socket to daemon as fd=3+ ● Not a proxy (same performance) ● No client awareness ● No CPU or memory overhead when idle
Socket activation: Pantheon’s use ● nginx and PHP-FPM ● MariaDB soon ○ Using an alternative now ● Allows 90%+ containers to be idle ● Makes bootup sensible ● Reconfiguration pattern is stop, not restart
Socket Activation Demo Demoed this at NYC Camp a few weeks ago
Automount/autofs ● Like socket activation for file system mounts ○ Kernel squats on mount path and looks for traffic ○ Brings up file mount lazily ● Used for FuseDAV (Valhalla client)
Challenge: Resource Availability ● Per-site load isn’t predictable ● Different sites compete for resources ○ Between customers ○ Among customers’ own sites ● Traditional prioritization isn’t adequate ○ VMs are too heavyweight ○ Tools like “nice” can cause starvation ○ Generally want burstability
cgroups ● Many options ○ Pantheon uses CPUShares and BlockIOWeight ● Keeps things fair under contention ○ Kind of like adding purple ropes when people are queueing
Contention with cgroups Demo
Customer Experience Monitor ● Runs a representative Drupal site on every container host ● Reports scores to the API and monitoring ● Influences migration and container placement
Migration ● At density, rebalancing is important ● Keep state lightweight ○ No OS ○ No runtime ● Mutiny: migration as replication + promotion
Challenge: Security Isolation ● Many users ● One kernel ● VMs too heavyweight ● Users run their own code ● Can’t betray expectations ○ Many users develop locally and push code ○ Some customers import existing, working sites
Isolation for security ● Users ● Namespaces ● Seccomp filters
Defense in depth ● Application ○ Drupal ● Runtime ○ nginx, PHP-FPM, FuseDAV ● Container: “binding” certificate ○ Linux user, namespaces, etc. ● Container host: “endpoint” certificate ○ Only trusted for the containers assigned ● Platform: root certificate
Challenge: Security Responses ● Traditional approach too big a hammer ○ Rebooting hundreds of hosts with 10k+ containers each would be a fail-over storm ○ Basic customers don’t have fail-over ○ Not going to pack it less dense ● Customers can run own code ○ May load executables and libraries themselves
Non-disruptive fixes ● Kernel upgrades via migration ● Rolling daemon and library upgrades ○ Heartbleed
Heartbleed Fix Demo
Presentación que realice en el Evento Nacional de Gobierno Abierto, realizado los ...
In this presentation we will describe our experience developing with a highly dyna...
Presentation to the LITA Forum 7th November 2014 Albuquerque, NM
Un recorrido por los cambios que nos generará el wearabletech en el futuro
Um paralelo entre as novidades & mercado em Wearable Computing e Tecnologias Assis...
The Lone Star College Academic Calendar lists important dates ... 2014 Bond Updates; Business ... Lone Star College is conducting information sessions for ...
Lone Star College System; Student Health Plan FAQs; Valuable Benefits; Blue 365 Flyer; Texas Pediatric Dental; Texas Pediatric Vision; 24/7 Nurseline ...
http://www.chron.com/neighborhood/bayarea/news/article/Lone-Star-Rally-2015-in-Galveston-What-you-need-6610846.php. ... the Lone Star Rally, Friday, Nov. 7 ...
Lone star ticks were more frequent in the southeast portion of the ... Journal of Medical Entomology 52 ... (2015) County Scale Distribution of ...
EBT PROGRAM : RESOURCES: Documents : Statistics ... The Lone Star Card is swiped at a retailer location for payment in the same way that a ...
Create an account or log into Facebook. Connect with friends, family and other people you know. Share photos and videos, send messages and get updates.
Lone Star Distribution Proudly Represents the Following Premium Brands. Ask about our 60 day Guarantee on All Orders.
13th Annual Lone Star EMMY Awards. Lone Star EMMY Awards turned out to be a spectacular night! We got the show completed in four hours, ...