Published on November 26, 2008
Photonics: Technological Platform for ICT in the 21st Century Smart Cities Presented by: Sardy Presented by: Sardy Fac. of Engineering, University Al-Azhar Indonesia Fac. of Engineering, University Al-Azhar Indonesia Global Knowledge Forum, 22-24 June 2008 Global Knowledge Forum, 22-24 June 2008 Madinah, Saudi Arabia Madinah, Saudi Arabia
Knowledge Based Society The detention and exchange of Knowledge ICT roles in communication, business, leisure times, etc. inherit from divides (social, literacy, digital, age) Lifelong education constant reinforcement of science Globalized: spatial-temporal life condition, scope for point of view, action and practical modes Most valuable asset Investment in intangible, Investment in intangible, in the 21st century human, and social capital human, and social capital Sources: J.P.Contzen, “Opportunities for UNL in the Knowledge Based Society of the 21st Century”, ICUKL, Goa, 2002 2 Potocnik J., The role of science and technology in a Knowledge Based Society, Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, 2007
Competitiveness issue Power of the New Economic Regime: Innovation + Creativity knowledge acts as the main engine of growth Competitive Advantages Human Empowerment Human Empowerment Comparative Advantages Natural Capital Science & BASED ON Technology Resources Resources SMART PEOPLES ECONOMIC Supporting Capital Innovation in SMART DRIVEN Factors Investment & Creativity CITIES HUMAN Common Skilled Knowledge RESOURCES Labor Labor Labor Source: Zuhal, Concept of Enterprising University, University Al Azhar Indonesia, April 2008 3
Smart Cities Characteristics Social and Human Capital Competitiveness • Level of qualification • Innovative spirit • Affinity to lifelong learning Participation • Entrepreneurship • Social and ethnic plurality • Participation in decision- • Economic image & trademarks • Flexibility making • Productivity • Creativity • Public and social services • Flexibility of labour market • Cosmopolitanism/Open mindedness • Transparent governance • International embeddedness • Participation in public life • Political strategies & • Ability to transform perspectives Smart People Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart Mobility Smart City Smart Living Smart Environment Transport and ICT Quality of life • Local accessibility • Cultural facilities • (Inter-) national accessibility Natural resources • Health conditions • Availability of ICT- • Promotes green living • Individual safety infrastructure • Pollution mitigation • Housing quality • Sustainable, innovative and • Environmental protection • Education facilities safe transport systems • Sustainable resource management • Tourism • Social cohesion Source: Centre of Regional Science at the Vienna University of Technology, the Department of Geography at University of Ljubljana, the OTB Research 4 Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies at the Delft University of Technology (2007). “Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities”
Communication in Smart Cities Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008) “The Reality of Convergence” 5
Optical Fiber cladding CROSS SECTION N=1.46 N=1.48 Light Ray Entering Core from Air core Light is propagated by total internal reflection Propagate a light signal down its length Single mode vs. multimode fiber Typical speed is 10 Gigabits per second Potential for 20 Terabits per second Currently used in business for wide area links or within data centers as connections to mass storage devices Currently carries TV signals and data communications to residential customers 6 Source: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/photonics/home_en.html,may 2, 2008
Why Photonic in Communications Optical Fiber is the backbone of modern communication networks – Text, Voice (SONET/Telephony) – Image , Video (TV) Fiber Twisted Pair – Multimedia (Voice, Data and Video) (SONET = Synchronous Optical Network) Information revolution wouldn’t have happened without the Optical Fiber 7
Today’s Apps May Drive Bandwidth Demand How much bandwidth is needed in the near term (~5 years)? Estimated bandwidth: Compressed HDTV (~ 20 Mbit/s) Uncompressed HDTV (~ 1 to 2 Gbit/s) ≥ 1 Gbit/s Advanced 3D Multi-player Online Video Games (~ 10 Mbit/s) Streaming PC Audio/Video (~2 Mbit/s) Home User Internet Telephony (< 1 Mbit/s) • If the price is low enough, end users will pay to get their apps. * Low cost delivery technologies are imperative! • Many technical solutions may evolve to meet this need. D. Nolte, “Mind at Light Speed” ; Network Computing, Jan. 7, ‘02 8
Broadband Access and Interfaces Diverse High capacity (Tbit/s) traffic (Mbits/s) fiber link High capacity Backbone optical network (Mbits/s) core (Mbits/s) Access Bottleneck Massively Distributed Sensor Network 9 A. Willner, USC
Network’s Generic structure 10 Source: Cedric Lam, Passive Optical Networks, Elsevier Inc., 2007
Networks Systems ngPON FTTH ultra- COST dense WDM-PON FTTH WDM-PON FTTH-PtP FTTH FTTH WDM&TDM-PON CATV G/E-PON xDSL CAPACITY ADSL POTs TIME POTs = Plain Old Telephone service, CATV = Cable TV or Community Antenna TV, ADSL = Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line, FTTH = Fiber To The Home, PON = Passive Optical Network, G/E PON = Gigabit/Ethernet PON, WDM = Wavelength Division Multiplexing, TDM = Time Division Multiplexing, PtP = Point to Point, ng = next generation Source: Josep Pratt, Advanced Architectures for next-generation FTTH PONs, UPC, Barcelona, Spain 11
The Quantum Limit Number of bits of information/transistors cannot be larger than the number of atoms Size of computer with certain number of transistors cannot be smaller than number of atoms used to make them Clock speed of computer cannot increase indefinitely with present technological platform Moore’s Law will not hold for long!! Need to “shift our paradigm” to quantum computing and silicon photonics 12
Qubits vs. Classical Bits Source: www.hep.caltech.edu/~hitlin/Ph70/, may 2,2008 13
Silicon Photonics The speed of light, condensed Fiber optic communications on the semiconductor scale Source: http://www.photonics.com,May 3, 2008 14
Why Silicon Photonics Speed of optical network communications Terabits/second Speed of microprocessor technologies Dual core/multi core processors Gigabits/second Speed of electrical circuits Start to have problems in low Gigabits/second range “As newer, faster microprocessors roll out, the copper connections that feed those processors within computers and servers will prove inadequate to handle the crushing tides of data.” ( Paniccia & Koehl, 2006). 15
Implications Computers, Servers, Storage systems Continue high speed data processing from source to CPU - potential processing in the Tb/s range. Smaller computers, less heat, elimination of motherboards (by today’s standards High performance for data/computation intense applications Databases, Enterprise Resource Planning systems, geophysical research programs, data mining, marketing research Network communication devices : Routers, bridges, hubs, Future multiplexing Large data files Video, music, presentation data, multimedia, Virtual Reality – 2nd Life Processors and memory chips which function with photonics 16
Some photonic applications Laser Show Card Verifier Barcode Decoration Cutting Welding 17 Sources: http://www.photonics.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_applications
LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis and is a procedure that permanently changes the shape of LASIK the cornea, the clear covering of the front of the eye, using an excimer laser Lidar for Traffic Safety Laser Printer Laser Rangefinder Night Vision Rifle 18 Sources: http://www.photonics.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_applications
Conclusions Knowledge based society need smart peoples, smart ICT infrastructures Economic growth National competitiveness Optical fiber to be used for broadband backbone communication, and PON-FTTH as one of the alternative networks A bright future of photonics in the 21st century, under the on-going research activities such as in: quantum computer, silicon photonics, nano photonics, etc. The role of education in Universities to stimulate for creating of new knowledge and national human empowerment are very important 19
Surah An-Noor: Verse 35 Source: Salmaan bin 'Ali Al 'Utaybi- Recitation from Surah An Noor, Verse 35, http://www.youtube.com 20
Thank You - Syukron Thank you very much for your kind attention 21
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