Phonological Processes, Phonological Patterns

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Information about Phonological Processes, Phonological Patterns
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Published on September 29, 2008

Author: emysegarra

Source: authorstream.com

Phonological Processes, Phonological Patterns : Phonological Processes, Phonological Patterns Presented by: Emy Segarra Choe Notes and quotes were taken from chapter 4 of the book “Phonology and Language Use” by Bybee, J.L. Introduction : Introduction “…the presence of certain articulatory patterns that are shared across speakers…” Transference Novel words Loan words Early attempts by adults at a foreign language. Focus : Focus Articulation viewed in terms of gestures. Articulation is examined in terms of sequencing and coordination of muscular activity. Alternation : Alternation “…to refer to any case in which a word or a morpheme has more than one variant” Examples Flapping in write vs. writing different forms that morphemes take opaque opacity “alternations change status over time…” Phonological function morphological function The Gestural Approach : The Gestural Approach “…the basic unit for phonological description is the gesture.” Gestures “…events that unfold during speech production and whose consequences can be observed in the movements of the speech articulators”. (Browman & Goldstein, 1990,1992,1995) Examples Typical utterance Individual gesture “…recognizes speech is an activity and that phonological knowledge is procedural knowledge…” Assimilation : Assimilation Temporal reduction Two previously sequential gestures are now simultaneous for at least part of their articulation. Example vowel nasalization “…repetition increases efficiency or fluency because sequence of events can be anticipated and one event can begin before the preceding is totally complete.” Reductive Processes : Reductive Processes Reduction in magnitude of gestures Lenitions or weakenings (consonants) Example Reduction of consonants [p],[f],[h] “Total deletion involves the loss of all the muscular events that were associated with the original consonant.” Temporal reduction of stops latter & ladder “The deletion of a consonant must involve both the loss of gesture and a temporal compression…” Reductive Processes : Reductive Processes Vowel reduction “…lessening of the gesture as well.” Examples Unstressed vowels Laxed vowels Centralization Shortening “when reduction leads to complete deletion, both temporal and substantive reduction have occurred.” Acoustic-Perceptual Component : Acoustic-Perceptual Component Changes in gestures or timing bring about an acoustic perceptual change. In order for a gestural change to proceed and be accepted its perceptual effects must be registered in our storage. Summary : Summary The author reviews gestural analyses of some common phonological processes. The gestural analyses correspond more closely to the actual processes of change in phonological processes. Gestural phonology allows the unification of patterns that seem disparate in other types of analyses.

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