Published on March 20, 2014
Chapter 3: Man and His Knowledge Continuation
The Validity of Knowledge
The Validity of Knowledge • What should be the basis for validity of true knowledge? • What is Truth? • In Philosophy, there are four ways on testing the validity of human knowledge.
The Validity of Knowledge • Conformity Theory of Truth • Coherence Theory of Truth • Pragmatic Theory of Truth • Marxist Theory of Truth
The Validity of Knowledge • Conformity of Truth -maintains that truth is what corresponds or conforms to existent facts of nature, the actual state of affairs and objective realities.
The Validity of Knowledge • Coherence Theory of Truth -knowledge is valid if it is consistent and is in harmony with other ideas, statements or concepts.
The Validity of Knowledge • Pragmatic Theory of Truth ”Everything in the world is relative, the worth of ideas, doctrine, principles, and practices depends on how they function in a given situation. If they work well, they may be judged as true, good, right, and beautiful; if they do not work well, they may be judged as false, evil, wrong, ugly, etc.” -William James
The Validity of Knowledge • Marxist Theory of Truth “Truth is not in what it is, but in what it ought to be.” -Herbert Marcuse -Truth is achieved as a matter of practice or praxis.
Truth and Reality
Truth and Reality Opinions we hold are true when they assert that which is, is, or that that which is not, is not, and that our opinions are false when they assert that that which is, is not, or that is not, is. -Plato and Aristotle
Truth and Reality • According to Plato and Aristotle Plato: True knowledge must be something that is real , permanent, unchanging, nor is capable of being changed, since truth always remains the same. True knowledge constitutes the rel, not the physical things of the universe, and is known only through one's reason, not through one's senses or perception.
Truth and Reality • According to Plato and Aristotle Aristotle: The ultimate nature, or essence of material things are also real, as well as their concepts, and, therefore, the study of the physical, material or tangible world could also reveal true knowledge.
Truth and Reality • Rationalist view Descartes: Considered reason to be superior to sense perception as source of true knowledge. Truth is regarded as static, inert, and unchanging.
Truth and Reality • Empiricist view F. Bacon, J. Locke, G. Berkeley, D. Hume: Measurement for testing what was true knowledge was that it must be based upon sense perception. Things which are not verifiable by the senses become unknowable.
Truth and Reality • Idealist view Emerson: Although the truth of the physical world is learned through the senses, the truth of the spiritual world is found through the power of reason. Hegel: reality and all of man's experiences, originated in the Mind of the Absolute, giving reality its rational and spiritual concept that it is knowable through reason.
Truth and Reality • Phenomenologist view Husserl: Reality is the consciousness of the mind, by which one is aware of his sensations, emotions, thoughts, ideas and all that he perceives.
Truth and Reality • Pragmatist view William James: Reality is determined by one's beliefs at a particular time, and that beliefs determine one's action. True Ideas are those that can be assimilated, validated, corroborated,and verified.
Prepared by: • BEA JANELLE M. MACALALAD III-4 BEEd Philosophical Analysis • (Report Presentation)
Philosophy of Knowledge; An Inquiry Into the Nature, Limits, and Validity of Human Cognitive Faculty: Amazon.de: George Trumbull Ladd: Fremdsprachige Bücher
Philosophy of Knowledge: An inquiry into the nature limits, and validity of human cognitive faculty: Amazon.de: George Trumbull Ladd: Fremdsprachige Bücher
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