Published on June 28, 2016
1. The end-product of education should be a free creative man, who can battle against historical circumstances and adversities of nature. - Dr.Radhakrishnan
2. INDIAN THINKER Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975)
3. HIS LIFE • He was born in 1888 in TamilNadu. • He got his early education in the Christian schools • He started his teaching career as professor of philosophy in different universities. • He wrote Tagore’s philosophy. • His notes on western philosophy attracted by the westerners
4. His book is history of Indian philosophy. He was invited by the oxford university to lecture on “The Hindu View of Life”. He was the vice-chancellor in Andhra University in 1931. His book eastern religion and western thought appeared in 1939. In 1952, he was elected as the first vice- president and chairman of the Rajyasabha. In 1962, this philosopher became the second president of Indian republic.
5. •He was got award for the “Bharat Ratna”, the highest national distinction in 1967. •He won the international 50 thousand dollar award just a month before his death. •Dr. Radhakrishnan’s contribution to education has been unique and irreplaceable. •He had first hand experience of educational institutions and their multifarious problems. •His educational thinking needs to be studied in the context of his view of life. •His function of philosophy is to order life and guide action.
6. DR.RADHAKRISHNAN’S VIEW OF LIFE Philosopher’s vision and educationist’s combination Dr. Radhakrishnan’s philosophy is idealism. Idealism means that life has a purpose, and ideals and values are the dynamic forces that give direction to life and help it to achieve its goal. The function of Philosophy is to order life and guide action.
7. Matter and spirit The matters show the superiority of the human mind. We are not merely a part of nature; there is a non natural element in us, an element which exceeds the quality and potentiality of matter. The element is the spirit of man. The man spirit which controls matter. Men may be nuclear geniuses, but they remain ethical dwarfs.
8. Place of religion Dr. Radhakrishnan believes that the way of religion is the remaking of man, a complete integration of his being. Religion introduces an entirely new sense, a totally new set of values. But religion is not doctrinal conformity of ceremonial piety. It is a personal encounter of the individual with the supreme.
9. Religion and science Emphasis on religion does not be little the role of science in our life. Science and religion are not opposed to each other. Both seek truth. The achievement of science have induced in our minds a mood of despair, making us feel like homeless exiles, caught in a blind machine. This cannot be counted as the failure of science. It is, in fact, the failure of man. Men sometimes become unmindful of their moral implications and social consequences.
10. MEANING AND FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION Education – Training of Intellect, heart and spirit: “Education, to be complete, must be humane; it must include not only the training of the intellect but the refinement of the heart and the discipline of the spirit”.
11. Humanism in education No nation in this world can hold its place of primacy in perpetuity. Let us, therefore, try and develop the qualities of charity in judgment and compassion for people who are suffering. If we adopt such an approach, the tensions of the world will diminish rapidly.
12. Education for Democracy The cause of democracy is the cause of the human individual of the free spirit of man with its spontaneous inspiration and Endeavour. When an individual is trained or appreciate his own holy being, he will develop a chastity of mind and sprit and approach with inner trembling another’s sanctuary.
13. Education to develop scientific spirit A lively development and use of intellectual curiosity, imaginative power, technical skill, acceptance of goals that stretch one’s talent and energy to their uttermost extent and the simultaneous rejection of all clinches of thought. These are the characteristics of the young person who is anxious to defend his individuality against the ever present corrupting force of habit and tradition and social pressure for conformity. All this possible with single minded devotion.
14. Education and Humane Values There is a great deal of intellectual and technical skill but the ethical and spiritual vitality is at low ebb. There is nothing wrong about science; what is the wrong is the use we make use of it. Education should give us a purpose. Coarseness of feeling, darkness of mind and the very causal way in which we inflict Cruelties all these indicated inward emptiness.
15. Education and spiritual values Education is the means by which we can tide up our minds, acquire information as well as a sense of values. Education gives to us that bent of mind, that attitude of reason, that spirit of democracy which will make us responsible citizens of our country. A True democracy is community of citizens differing from one another but all bound to a common goal.
16. Education – A search of integration Education aims at making us into civilized human beings, conscious of our moral and social obligations. We must have an idea of the general plan of the universe and the search for truth. When we attain truth or burdens are lightened and our difficulties are diminished. It lights up our pathway with the radiance of joy.
17. Education to develop his spirit of enquiry We should develop the spirit of enquiry and dedication to the pursuit of science and scholarship. We have enough material but it is not funded properly. We need education in character.
18. Education to train people for freedom and democracy The future of democracy in Asia depends on our willingness to submit to discipline, undergo personal sacrifice. If India is to remains free, united and democratic, educational institutions should train people for freedom not obedience, for unity and not localism, for democracy not dictatorship. Our young should have a sense of purpose.
19. Education and self-discipline We must train the young to the best possible all around living, individual and social. We must make them intelligent and good. They observe unwritten laws of decency and honour felt by good men but not enforced by any statue.
20. Education institution to preserve the spirit of the Youth Unless we preserve the spirit of youth, keep an open mind and change our belief and practice, we cannot endure. To preserve thought, spirit and inspiration of this ancient land and let them inform our customs and institutions are the tasks assigned to this generation of scholars.
21. Education of Women Women are human beings and have as much right to full development as men as women have. In regard to opportunities for intellectual and spiritual development, we should not emphasize the sex of omen even as we do not emphasize sex of men. In all Human beings, irrespective of their sex, the same drama of flesh and the spirit, of finitude and transcendence takes place.
22. DR. RADHAKRISHNAN EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) University education commission 1948- 1949 also known as Radhakrishnan commission which was the first education commission set up in independent India. University commission recommended teaching that life has a meaningful. University grants commission should be set up for allocation of grants.
23. •The commission recommended that objective tests should be constructed. •Most of the recommendation of the university commission was repetition of earlier reports. •Educations should be research oriented. •The commission recommended 180 working days.
24. The education should not only help the students earn their living but also help them to lead a life which is more and to attain highest human values.
25. CURRICULUM The curriculum of university education must have it’s base on Indian history and Indian Philosophy. The spirituality as well as material knowledge should be find equal place in the curriculum of the university.
26. TEACHING STANDARDS The teacher should adapt new teaching methods to narrow, down the gap between teacher and student. Tutorial system should be introduced.
27. REFORMS IN THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM There is not much use in conducting examinations once or twice a year. The teacher must evaluate the students continuously in the classroom itself. He must evaluate those often using objective tests.
28. LEARNIG THROUGH MOTHER TONGUE Learning, teaching and writing exams should be in one’s mother tongue itself. The text books should be prepared in the respective mother-tongue itself.
29. MORAL INSTRUCTION At every stage of educational system, moral instructions should be imparted. Moral values of all religions should be given.
30. EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS The educational standards among students, the age of admission of the students to the colleges should be increased. The school and collegiate education should be for eleven and three years respectively.
31. ELIGIBLITY CRITERION FOR ADMISSION Only eligible students must be admitted to arts and science course in the colleges.
32. STANDARD OF TEACHERS Well disciplined talented teachers should be employed in the educational institutions. Education commission is instrumental in formulating National education policy of India.
33. RECOMMENDATIONS OF DR. RADHAKRISHANAN EDUCATION COMMISSION Dr. Radhakrishnan formulated the aims of the university education in independent India as follows. To provide leadership in politics, administration, industry and commerce. To enable the country to attain in as a short time as possible freedom from wand, diseases and ignorance. To make the universities serve as the homes of intellectual adventure and as the organs of civilization.
34. RECOMMENDATIONS OF DR. RADHAKRISHANAN EDUCATION COMMISSION To provide a coherent picture to the universe and an integrated way of life. To develop a love for higher values of life such as though for the poor and the suffering, regard and respect for women and so on. To help the students make a critical study of our past and to appreciate our cultural unity. To promote patriotism as well as international understanding among the pupils
35. CONTRIBUTION OF DR. RADHAKRISHNAN TO EDUCATION The greatest contribution of Dr.S.Radhakrishnan to Educational thought and practice is the report of the university Education commission 1948-1949. The Report of the commission which was presided over by Dr.S.Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar is a document of great importance as it has guided the development of university education in India since independence.
36. CONTRIBUTION OF DR. RADHAKRISHNAN TO EDUCATION It recommendations envisaged 12years of schooling and degree course of three years. It also recommended that the university teaching be made more attractive by improving the conditions of service. Another important recommendation was the setting up of a central grants commission. The commission courageously tackled the problem of religious education.
37. The commission observed “Our education should encourage the development in its member fearlessness of mind, strength of conscience and integrity of purpose”. It has further observed ‘It we claim to be civilized, we must develop thought for the poor and the suffering, chivalrous regard and respect for women, faith in human brotherhood regardless of race or colour, nation or religion, love of peace and freedom, abhorrence of cruelty and ceaseless devotion to the claims of justice”.
38. CONCLUSION When he became President, some of his students and friends requested him to allow them to celebrate his birthday, 5 September. He replied, "Instead of celebrating my birthday, it would be my proud privilege if 5 September is observed as Teachers' Day." His birthday has since been celebrated as Teachers' Day in India.
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