Philosophy and Atrificial Inteligence

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Information about Philosophy and Atrificial Inteligence

Published on April 18, 2007

Author: mdabrowski

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A short glance at the most important philosophical contributions having influence on Artificial Inteligence

What is AI?? (philosophy and AI/SW) Maciej Dąbrowski Digital Enterprise Research Institute National University of Ireland, Galway maciej . dabrowski @deri.org

Outline Motivation The Godel incompletness theorem The contribution of Turing Penrose and the human mind Conclusion

Motivation

The Godel incompletness theorem

The contribution of Turing

Penrose and the human mind

Conclusion

Motivation What is AI?? C an be defined as the study of methods by which a computer can simulate aspects of human intelligence . design a computer that might be able to reason for itself. development of systems that can work with natural language . ability of the computer to search knowledge in a database for the best possible reply to a question

What is AI??

C an be defined as the study of methods by which a computer can simulate aspects of human intelligence .

design a computer that might be able to reason for itself.

development of systems that can work with natural language .

ability of the computer to search knowledge in a database for the best possible reply to a question

Motivation What is Semantic Web ?? Keep things relatively simple, do not seek absolute completness The Semantic Web is an evolution of the World Wide Web in which information is machine processable , thus permitting browsers or other software agent s to find , share and combine information for us more easily.

What is Semantic Web ??

Keep things relatively simple, do not seek absolute completness

The Semantic Web is an evolution of the World Wide Web in which information is machine processable , thus permitting browsers or other software agent s to find , share and combine information for us more easily.

Motivation What does Semantic Web has in common with Artificial Inteligence?? Is it possible to achieve goals of AI?? If yes – what are the concequences?? Is it possible to achieve goals of SW?? What are we trying to create??

What does Semantic Web has in common with Artificial Inteligence??

Is it possible to achieve goals of AI??

If yes – what are the concequences??

Is it possible to achieve goals of SW??

What are we trying to create??

The Godel incompletness theorem He concentrated on research on formal approach. Godel proved that in every consistent, sufficiently general axiomatic system: there always exists a true proposition which cannot be deduced f r om the axioms ( Godel's incompleteness theorem ); the consistency of the axioms cannot be deduced from the axioms ( Godel's consistency theorem ). There exist no proof for the Godel proposition Kurt Gödel Born: April 28, 1906 Died: January 14, 1978 Field: Mathematics Institution: Princeton University

He concentrated on research on formal approach.

Godel proved that in every consistent, sufficiently general axiomatic system:

there always exists a true proposition which cannot be deduced f r om the axioms

( Godel's incompleteness theorem );

the consistency of the axioms cannot be deduced from the axioms ( Godel's consistency theorem ).

There exist no proof for the Godel proposition

Kurt Gödel

Born: April 28, 1906

Died: January 14, 1978

Field: Mathematics

Institution: Princeton University

The Godel incompletness theorem Proof: If false  contradiction in the axiomatic system (impossible) If true  the preposition is true and theorem is correct Consequences: Formal approach is not sufficient Mathematical meaning Incompletness theorem stands Kurt Gödel Born: April 28, 1906 Died: January 14, 1978 Field: Mathematics Institution: Princeton University

Proof:

If false  contradiction in the axiomatic system (impossible)

If true  the preposition is true and theorem is correct

Consequences:

Formal approach is not sufficient

Mathematical meaning

Incompletness theorem stands

Kurt Gödel

Born: April 28, 1906

Died: January 14, 1978

Field: Mathematics

Institution: Princeton University

The contribution of Turing The turing test difference between artificial and human inteligence The Turing machine: Infinite speed and memory, state machine any finite sequence of processing steps could be carried out in an infinitesimally small amount of time. Is there a general algorithm that can predict whether the Turing machine will stop with a given algorithm?? If true  all mathematical problems can be solved by formal approach Alan Turing Born: June 23, 1912 Died: June 7, 1954 Field: Mathematics, Logics Computer Science

The turing test

difference between artificial and human inteligence

The Turing machine:

Infinite speed and memory, state machine

any finite sequence of processing steps could be

carried out in an infinitesimally small amount of time.

Is there a general algorithm that can predict whether the Turing machine will stop with a given algorithm??

If true  all mathematical problems can be solved by formal approach

Alan Turing

Born: June 23, 1912

Died: June 7, 1954

Field: Mathematics, Logics

Computer Science

The contribution of Turing Conclusion Given the huge processing power you still cannot resolve all mathematical problems Existing AI cannot do what human can Is it possible to get computers to solve mathematical meaning? If yes  what does human mind is?? Alan Turing Born: June 23, 1912 Died: June 7, 1954 Field: Mathematics, Logics Computer Science

Conclusion

Given the huge processing power you still cannot resolve all mathematical problems

Existing AI cannot do what human can

Is it possible to get computers to solve mathematical meaning?

If yes  what does human mind is??

Alan Turing

Born: June 23, 1912

Died: June 7, 1954

Field: Mathematics, Logics

Computer Science

Penrose and the human mind Try to look from the point of view of human mind There are mathematical results on the truth of certain prepositions, which can be recognized by any mathematician, but can not formally be proven The ideal computing device, the so-called Turing machine, can only be used for solving problems by a formal approach. Roger Penrose Born: August 8, 1931 Field: Mathematics, Logics Computer Science Institution: University of Oxford

Try to look from the point of view of human mind

There are mathematical results on the truth of certain prepositions, which can be recognized by any mathematician, but can not formally be proven

The ideal computing device, the so-called Turing machine, can only be used for solving problems by a formal approach.

Roger Penrose

Born: August 8, 1931

Field: Mathematics, Logics

Computer Science

Institution: University of Oxford

Penrose and the human mind Conclusion The existance of ‘seeing’ and ‘intuition’ are often necessary to find a solution of a problem Human mind has definite processing power and it is still better than Turing machine Is that mean that the formal approach is not sufficient? Roger Penrose Born: August 8, 1931 Field: Mathematics, Logics Computer Science Institution: University of Oxford

Conclusion

The existance of ‘seeing’ and ‘intuition’ are often necessary to find a solution of a problem

Human mind has definite processing power and it is still better than Turing machine

Is that mean that the formal approach is not sufficient?

Roger Penrose

Born: August 8, 1931

Field: Mathematics, Logics

Computer Science

Institution: University of Oxford

Conclusion Formal approach is not sufficient What is AI then? Does GUT exist? How this affect the Semantic Web? What are the goals? We cannot compare human to computer!!

Formal approach is not sufficient

What is AI then?

Does GUT exist?

How this affect the Semantic Web?

What are the goals?

We cannot compare human to computer!!

References Alfred Driessen – Philosophical Consequences pf the Godel Theorem Riccardo Bruni - G o del, Turing, the Undecidability Results and the Nature of Human Mind http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Penrose http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUT/

Alfred Driessen – Philosophical Consequences pf the Godel Theorem

Riccardo Bruni - G o del, Turing, the Undecidability Results and the Nature of Human Mind

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Penrose

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUT/

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