Published on April 17, 2008
Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology What is Sport and Exercise Psychology?: What is Sport and Exercise Psychology? Tennis is mostly mental. You win or lose the match before you even go out there. Using Sport & Exercise Psychology: Using Sport & Exercise Psychology During your season, how long do you spend physically training Average hours per day During your season, how long do you practice psychological skills? Average hours per day How important are mental skills to your performance and success? Not Very Important Important Important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stories of Mental Resilience: Stories of Mental Resilience Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology?: Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology? Many myths and misconceptions about the field. “Quacks” selling poor (and even illegal) sport psychology. People aren’t good consumers. Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology?: Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology? Myth # 1 - Mental skills are viewed as "built-in" and thus unchangeable. You're either mentally tough or you're not! Myth #2 - People think all athletes are automatically mentally tough. Myth #3 - Mental skills do not require practice like physical skills. Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology?: Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology? Myth # 4 - The only athletes who need mental training are “head cases”. Myth #5 - Mental training is only a "band-aid" to help an athlete in a slump or a team stuck in a losing streak. Myth #6 - Sport psychologists don't know much about sport and cannot identify with athletes. Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology?: Why are People Resistant towards Sport & Exercise Psychology? Myth #7 - Mental training is "voodoo" or "pop psychology." Myth #8 - Sport psychologists are only interested in finding out what's wrong with athletes. Myth #9 - Sport psychology has no relevance to exercise or other performance settings. Myth #10 - I don't have time to try mental training. Why is Sport Psychology Growing?: Why is Sport Psychology Growing? Pursuit of excellence by athletes New frontier of performance enhancement Sports as a political tool High salaries in sport Recognition gained from sport Spectator interest Longer sport careers Fitness movement More youth sport What do Sport and Exercise Psychologists DO?: What do Sport and Exercise Psychologists DO? What Do Sport Psychologists Do?: What Do Sport Psychologists Do? Develop performance improvement programs. Use psychological assessment techniques to assist athletes. Try to improve communication between athlete and coach, athlete and athlete, and coach and coach. Provide crisis intervention services. Provide consultative and program development services for coaches, trainers, and others that work directly with athletes. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college football coach requires his players to witness the castration of a bull. The owner of a professional sports team has her players look at a picture of her dog's grave. A Little League coach offers $20 to any player who hits a homer. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college basketball coach leaves the bench in the middle of a game and sits in the stands, giving "high-fives" to fans and the mascot. A college tennis coach vows to shave her head if her team wins the conference championship. A college men’s basketball coach requires his team to play a version of “strip poker” for missed free throws. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college football coach removed the team’s logo from the players’ helmets and told them they would have to earn the logo back. A college basketball coach kicked her players out of their plush locker room and made them practice in their own clothes. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A Major League baseball coach agrees to dye his hair if his team wins three games in a row. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate Piniella said after the third victory that he intended to rescind his offer to dye his hair if the Devil Rays had not won because he thought the pledge had the potential to become a hindrance to the team. “The color of my hair has nothing to do with wins and losses.” The winning streak ended abruptly with an 11-3 loss. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A high school football coach uses fake blood to stage his own shooting in the school cafeteria. A high school wrestling coach bites the head off a sparrow to motivate his team. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate: Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate Darwin, Australia (CNN) -- If you're hoping to make record time doing laps in the pool, perhaps you should consider employing a training technique that one swim instructor in Australia's Northern Territory claims yields record-breaking results: a crocodile. Swimming coach Mark Davies says his young swimmers are beating the clock, now that they're being chased by a hungry "croc." Davies says he lets his swimmers dive into the pool first. Then, he tosses in the crocodile. One young girl described the experience as "absolutely terrifying.” Davies says he checks the croc's swimming speed first, and makes sure the swimmer has enough of a head start that the crocodile can't really catch up. Local swimming authorities say he'll have to use a private pool if he wants to continue using the crocodile while the Australian Institute of Sport has condemned the technique. Mr.. Davies is unrepentant. He told Australian newspaper The Telegraph: “The thought of something chasing them down the pool certainly improves the speeds of my swimmers.” Before the 1.8-metre saltwater crocodile is lowered into the water, its jaw is bound with tape and its claws are clipped. Why Study Motivation?: Why Study Motivation? Why do people participate in sport and exercise? What motivated you as an athlete, student, etc.? Why do they drop-out? What demotivated you? How do you motivate your athletes, students, clients? What Is Motivation?: What Is Motivation? Definition: Direction, intensity of behavior/effort. Sustaining that direction and intensity over time. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation EXTRINSIC: Motivated by external rewards. Performing an activity to achieve instrumental outcomes. Impact of Rewards on Behavior: Impact of Rewards on Behavior What types of things make you want to improve or perform better? What types of things are most rewarding? Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation INTRINSIC: Inner striving to be competent, master task Engage in interesting activities to seek and achieve optimal challenges. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation: How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Assess both situational and personal factors. Think interaction! Structure situations to meet people’s needs. Provide for successful experiences. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation: How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Reward contingent on performance. Use verbal and nonverbal praise. Vary content & sequence of practice drills. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation: How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Involve athletes / students / clients in decision making. Set realistic performance goals. Recognize that YOU are a critical part of the motivational climate! Defining Arousal: Defining Arousal What is "IT"? Serves an energizing function Ranges on a continuum, deep sleep to extreme excitement Multidimensional construct: Physiological activation Behavioral responses Cognitive and emotional responses Arousal: Arousal Fight or flight Increasing Awareness of Arousal/Intensity: Increasing Awareness of Arousal/Intensity HOW people cope with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety they feel. Defining Anxiety: Defining Anxiety How do you feel when you get nervous or anxious? Defining Anxiety: Defining Anxiety ANXIETY: Negative emotional state (e.g., feelings of worry, nervousness, apprehension). Associated with activation (or arousal) of the body. What is Stress?: What is Stress? How do you know when you are stressed? What happens? What do you do? What is Stress?: What is Stress? Not just a singular event. Best viewed as a process or sequence of events. Why Study Self-Confidence?: Why Study Self-Confidence? Gardner, never an NCAA champion, never a world medalist, ended Karelin's string of three Olympic gold medals and 13-year unbeaten streak by winning the 2000 Olympic super heavyweight wrestling gold medal 1-0 "When did I think I could beat him? About 10 minutes ago," Gardner said. “I kept saying, I think I can. I think I can.' But it wasn't until it was over that I knew I could.” What is Self-Confidence?: What is Self-Confidence? A belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior. What is Self-Confidence? : What is Self-Confidence? Winner of 8 Grand Slam events Ranked #1 for 263 consecutive weeks in the 1970s 1991 US Open, 39 years old, ranked 174th and needing a wild-card to get in. Won his opening round match against Patrick McEnroe, lasting 4 hours and 18 minutes, and ending at 1:35 AM! Rallied from behind throughout the tournament to make it the quarter finals before bowing out. Jimmy Connors What is Self-Confidence?: What is Self-Confidence? The whole thing is never to get negative about yourself. Sure, it’s possible that the other guy you’re playing is tough and that he may have beaten you the last time you played. And, OK, maybe you haven’t been playing all that well yourself. But the minute you start thinking about these things you’re dead. I go out to every match convinced that I’m going to win. That’s all there is to it. Jimmy Connors What is Self-Confidence?: What is Self-Confidence? Belief --> Behavior Roger Bannister 4:00 mile, 1954 Role of ability. Self-Talk and Self-Confidence: Self-Talk and Self-Confidence Changing self-talk weakens the hold of negative beliefs. The mind is its own place, and in itself, can make heaven of Hell, and a hell of Heaven. John Milton ~ Paradise Lost Effects of Negative Self-Confidence: Effects of Negative Self-Confidence Worse performance. Increased self-defeating talk and behavior, slumps. Nancy Kerrigan example. “Olympic dreams do come true. She's been through so much to deliver this performance. What a great moment for Nancy Kerrigan”. Scott Hamilton-CBS television 1994 Lillehammer Games Types of Self-Confidence: Types of Self-Confidence OPTIMAL: Realistic sense of what you can accomplish. Realistic goals, playing within yourself. Types of Self-Confidence: Types of Self-Confidence DIFFIDENT: Lacking confidence. Fear of failure, high degree of self-doubt. Use ego-protective behaviors. Types of Self-Confidence: Types of Self-Confidence FALSE CONFIDENCE: Unfounded confidence in abilities. Cocky, arrogant. OR Act to cover up diffident attitude. Sources of Self-Confidence: Sources of Self-Confidence How do people develop self-confidence? How is self-confidence destroyed? Sources of Self-Confidence: Sources of Self-Confidence Performance Accomplishments: Based on mastery experiences. Most dependable. Vicarious Experiences: Observing others successfully perform the skill. Sources of Self-Confidence: Sources of Self-Confidence Verbal Persuasion: Using persuasive techniques. Nonverbal as well. Self and Others Physiological States: Perception of physiological arousal. Pygmalion Effect: Pygmalion Effect Confidence-Expectation Cycle. Explains the power that labels and expectations have on performance. Classic research in area. Are Groups “Better” than Individuals?: Are Groups “Better” than Individuals? Two heads are better than one. Too many cooks spoil the broth. The more the merrier. Three is a crowd. Many hands make light work. If you want things done well, do them yourself. What is a Team?: What is a Team? Difficult concept to define. More than just a collection of people. Evolution from a group to a team. What is a Team?: What is a Team? Collective identity, self-categorization Sense of shared purpose/objectives (common fate) Structured ways of communicating Personal and/or Task Interdependence Mutual benefit Interpersonal attraction Interaction among members: Key to distinguishing between teams and groups Just because there is a group doesn’t mean there is a team! Can Teams be Problematic?: Can Teams be Problematic? Are groups/teams always better than individuals? What are the benefits of working alone? What problems can occur in groups? Can Teams be Problematic?: Can Teams be Problematic? Social loafing Self-deception In-group vs. out-group Conformity Groupthink De-individuation Individual domination Time requirements Benefits of Teams: Benefits of Teams Foster communications and networking Facilitate idea generation and problem solving Encourage cooperation and commitment Promote inclusion and involvement Create learning and developmental opportunities Slide54: Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress Working together is success. - Henry Ford How does team structure facilitate this process? TEAM STRUCTURE: TEAM STRUCTURE Two characteristics: Team Roles Team Norms Slide56: The way a team plays as a whole determines its success. You may have the greatest bunch of individual stars in the world, but if they don’t play together, the club won’t be worth a dime. - Babe Ruth TEAM ROLES: TEAM ROLES Team Effectiveness and Roles: Team Effectiveness and Roles Effectiveness is enhanced when members accept and understand their roles: Role clarity Role acceptance Functional and non-functional roles Team Effectiveness and Roles: Team Effectiveness and Roles Role Acceptance: Satisfaction/dissatisfaction and pride/shame that people have in their roles. How does this occur in a sport team? Ringleman Effect: Ringleman Effect Tug of War example: Why did teams with more members pull less weight? 2 people = 93% 3 people = 85% 8 people = 49% Ringleman Effect: Ringleman Effect Same results seen in lab experiments and “real” competitive situations E.g., swimming & track relays, rowing, cheerleading Even with blindfolding or deception, the same decreases in individual performance occur. Why? Social Loafing!