Published on April 17, 2008
Historical Foundations of Physical Education and Sport : Historical Foundations of Physical Education and Sport What lessons can be learned from history? : What lessons can be learned from history? The experiences of yesteryear help guide professionals’ endeavors today. Studying the past will help the professional to understand the present better. Primitive Societies : Primitive Societies Primitive people did not need to set aside a period during the day when they could participate in various forms of activity. Well-developed bodies and sound organic systems were commonplace among primitive people. Therefore…civilization has brought the need for an organized physical education and sport program. Ancient China : Ancient China Followed a policy of isolation. Natural protection against invaders. Laws were passed to keep foreigners out of the country. Detrimental in many ways to a belief in physical education. Mainly concerned with memorizing the works of Confucius. Individuality was suppressed, and all persons were destined to live a rigid and stereotyped existence. Ancient China : Ancient China Cong Fu gymnastics were developed in 2698 B.C. These were medical gymnastics intended to keep the body in good organic condition. If certain kneeling, bending, lying and standing exercises could be performed, together with certain types of respiratory training, the illness could be alleviated. Ancient China : Ancient China Sons of rich families engaged in music, dancing, and archery. Wrestling, jujitsu, boxing, ts’ u chu (football), polo, tug-of-war, water games, ch’ui wan (similar to golf), shuttlecock and flying kites were also popular. The more favored classes engaged in play, but it seems the masses had little opportunity for participation in formal physical activities. Ancient India : Ancient India The person who desired to be holy ignored the physical needs of the body and concentrated solely on spiritual needs. Evidence is available about pastimes such as dice, throwing balls, plowing contests, tumbling, chariot races, marbles, riding elephants and horses, swordsmanship, foot races, wrestling, boxing, and dancing. Yoga, an activity common in India and involving exercises in posture and regulated breathing was popular. Ancient Near East : Ancient Near East The civilizations of ancient Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine and Persia mark a turning point in the history of physical education and sport. Egypt: Egypt As young boys they were instructed in the use of various weapons of war: bow and arrow, battleaxe, mace, lance, and shield. Countries between the Tigris and Euphrates : Countries between the Tigris and Euphrates The lower class of the population found few opportunities for recreation and sport. However, the upper classes indulged in these activities regularly. Horsemanship, use of bow and arrow, water activities, and training in physical exercises were considered as important as instruction that was more intellectual in nature. Persia: Persia Main objective-to build an empire through military aggression. A strong Persian army means a healthy and physically fit army. Persia: Persia At the age of 6 years the state required all boys to leave their homes for training, which consisted of events such as running, slinging, shooting a bow, throwing a javelin, riding, hunting and marching. Greece : Greece Physical education as well as sport experienced a “golden age”. The Greeks strove for physical perfection, and this objective affected all phases of their lives. Gymnastics and music were considered the two most important subjects-“Exercise for the body and music for the soul”. Greece: Greece Gymnastics contributed to courage, discipline and physical well-being. Individuals ran, wrestled, jumped, danced or threw the javelin not for reward but for what it would do for their bodies. Sparta : Sparta Main objective of physical education was to develop a strong and powerful army. Women as well as men, were required to be in good physical condition. Sparta : Sparta A boy was allowed to stay at home only for the first 6 years of his life. After this he was required to stay in the public barracks and entered the agoge, a system of public, compulsory training. Vigorous and rigid training style. Wrestling, jumping, running, throwing javelin and discus, marching, horseback riding, and hunting. Athens: Athens Did not control and regulate the individual’s life as rigidly as Sparta. The military emphasis was just as great or greater than Sparta. Each person was a whole and was only as strong as his or her weakest part. Athens : Athens Gymnasiums became the physical, social and intellectual centers in Greece. Men such as Plato, Aristotle, and Antisthenes were responsible for making gymnasiums outstanding intellectual centers as well. Youths usually entered the gymnasium at about 14 to 16 years of age. Paidotribe/Gymnast/Gymnasiarch Athens : Athens The national festivals were the most important events in the lives of the Greeks; Also important in laying the foundation for the modern Olympic games. These national festivals were in honor of some hero or deity and consisted of feasting, dancing, singing, and events involving physical prowess. Athens : Athens To compete in the games, the contestant had to be training for 10 months. He had to be free, not a slave. No criminal record. The contestants as well as their fathers, brothers and trainers, had to swear to an oath that they would not use illegal tactics to win. Once enrolled for a contest, the athlete had to compete. Athens : Athens Events included foot racing, javelin, discus, wrestling, broad jumping, weight throwing, boxing and horse racing. The victors were presented with a wreath of olive branches. To be crowned a victor in an Olympic event was to receive the highest honor that could be bestowed in Greece. Rome : Rome Wealth became the object of most citizens. Luxury, corruption and extravagance became commonplace. The Romans believed that exercise was for health and military purpose and did not see play as an enjoyable pastime. Rome : Rome The ages of 17 and 60 years were liable for military service. Physical activity was considered essential to be in good physical shape to be ready to fight at a moment’s notice. Soldiers followed a rigid training schedule that consisted of activities such as marching, running, jumping, swimming, and throwing the discus and javelin. “Dark Ages” : “Dark Ages” Setbacks in learning, public works, and government. Still received physical benefits from a nomadic, out-doors lifestyle. Mainly concerned with hunting, caring for cattle and sheep and participating in vigorous outdoor sport and warfare. Feudalism : Feudalism The feudalistic period appeared because people needed protection. Turned to noblemen who built castles and had large land holdings. Fief-lord who owned the land Vassal-used the fief’s land and in return owed allegiance and certain obligations. Serfs-largest group; worked the land but shared little profit. Feudalism : Feudalism At the age of 7 years a boy was usually sent to the castle of a nobleman for training and preparation for knighthood. First, he was known as a page, and his instructor and teacher was usually one of the women in the lord’s castle. Practiced for events such as boxing, running, fencing, jumping and swimming. Feudalism : Feudalism At the age of 14 years the boy became a squire and was assigned to a knight. His studies included keeping the knight’s weapons in good condition, caring for horses, helping him with his armor, attending to his injuries, and guarding his prisoners. Required to engage in vigorous sports and exercises such as hunting, scaling walls, shooting with a bow and arrow, running, climbing, swordsmanship and horsemanship. Feudalism : Feudalism If the squire proved his fitness, he became a knight at 21 years of age. Jousts and tournaments were tests of a knight’s fitness. In the jousts two knights attempted to unseat one another from their horses with blows from lances and by skill in horsemanship. During these tournaments death often resulted. In these exhibitions a knight had the opportunity to display his personal bravery, skill, strength and courage. Physical Education and Sport In the United States : Physical Education and Sport In the United States Colonial Period (1607 to 1783) : Colonial Period (1607 to 1783) Little regard for planned activity. Physical exercise through working on the farms. During the colonial period little attention was given to any form of physical activity in the schools. The emphasis was the three Rs at the elementary level and the classics at the secondary level. Slide31: Colonial Period (1607 to 1783) Little regard for planned activity. Physical exercise through working on the farms. During the colonial period little attention was given to any form of physical activity in the schools. The emphasis was the three Rs at the elementary level and the classics at the secondary level. Colonial Period : Colonial Period (New England) Puritans-denounced play as the work of the devil. Pleasures and recreation were banned. (Dutch of New York) Like to engage in sports such as skating, coasting, hunting, and fishing. In Virginia, many kinds of sports were popular, such as running, boxing, wrestling, horse racing, cockfights, fox hunts, and later, cricket and football. National Period (1784-1861) : National Period (1784-1861) (Period from the American Revolution to the Civil War) Physical education and sport began to assume an important place in society. Educational institutions utilized games and sports as after-school activity, but had not reached a point to occupy a place in the daily schedule. Civil War Period until 1900 : Civil War Period until 1900 American sport began to achieve some degree of popularity. Tennis was introduced in 1874. 1894 the USGA was formed. 1895 the American Bowling Congress was organized. Other sports popular in this period were wrestling, boxing volleyball, skating, skiing, lacrosse, handball, archery, track, soccer, squash, football and swimming. Civil War Period until 1900 : Civil War Period until 1900 In 1896, the Olympic Games were revived in Athens, Greece. Participation was limited to males and to 28 events in four sports: track & field, gymnastics, target shooting and fencing. Civil War Period until 1900 : Civil War Period until 1900 With the first intercollegiate meet in the form of a crew race between Harvard and Yale in 1852, intercollegiate sports began to play a prominent role on college campuses. Williams and Amherst played the first intercollegiate baseball game in 1859. Rutgers and Princeton played the first football game in 1869. Civil War Period until 1900 : Civil War Period until 1900 Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representative was formed (1895) Established eligibility requirements Imposed limits on athletic financial aid Developed guidelines for the employment of coaches Later became the Big Ten American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) 1885 1892-Ohio was the first state to pass a law requiring physical education in the public schools. Early Twentieth Century : Early Twentieth Century The playground movement had a rapid period of growth. NCAA, NAIA were formed to keep a watchful eye on competitive sport. World War I (1916-1919) : World War I (1916-1919) Selective Service Act-called to service all men between ages of 18 and 25 years. One-third of the men were found physically unfit for armed service and many more were found physically inept. Depression Years (1930-1939) : Depression Years (1930-1939) Budgets cut back, programs were either dropped or downgraded. Between 1932 and 1934 an estimated 40% of the physical education programs were dropped completely. Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) : Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) In December 1953 an article was published in the Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The article reported the results of fitness tests. Nearly 60% of the American children had failed, compared with only 9% of the European children. Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) : Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) President Dwight Eisenhower Established President’s Council on Youth Fitness President John F. Kennedy President’s Council on Physical Fitness Name changed to President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) : Mid-Twentieth Century (1940-1970) Lifetime sports-sports that can be played during a person’s entire lifetime. School and college physical education programs-bowling, tennis, golf, badminton Recent Developments (1970 to present) : Recent Developments (1970 to present) Adventure education Capitalize on the interest in outdoor pursuits, such as backpacking, high-ropes course, or challenge initiatives in which members of a group have to work together to solve a task Sport Education model Students are divided into teams that practice together throughout the sport season (unit) and participate in formal competition that ends in a culminating event. Recent Developments (1970 to present) : Recent Developments (1970 to present) Emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion To improve health it was recommended that people engage in fitness activities on a regular basis. Engaging in vigorous physical activity 3 to 5 times a week, at 60-90% of the age-adjusted maximum heart rate, for at least 20 minutes. Recent Developments (1970 to present) : Recent Developments (1970 to present) National Children and Youth Fitness Study (NCYFS I) 1985 National Children and Youth Fitness Study II (NCYFS II) % of body fat higher than their counterparts in the 1960s. NCYFS I & II raised concerns that current school physical education programs may be inadequate to promote lifetime fitness. Girls and Women in Sport : Girls and Women in Sport Title IX “No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex be excluded form participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance”.