Ph.D. thesis

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Information about Ph.D. thesis

Published on December 6, 2009

Author: nadharaiya


Slide 1: Ecological study on Asiatic Lion(Panthera leo persica) in and aroundGir Protected Area, Western India Nishith Dharaiya Department of Life sciences Hem. North Gujarat University Patan -India Slide 2: The Gir Ecosystem Area : 1412 sq. Kms. Geology : Decan trap, Basalt, Dolomite Forest type: Dry deciduous forest Fauna : Asiatic lion (P. leo persica) Leopard (P. pardus) Spotted Deer (Axis axis) Sambar (Cervus unicolor) Marsh crocodile (Crocodilus pelustris) Rivers and Dams: Three permanent rivers and Four seasonal rivers Four major dams are constructed on the river Location of Gir : Location of Gir The forest of Gir lies between 200 40’N and 210 50’ N latitude and 700 50’ E and 710 50’ E longitude. Adjoining area of Gir forest : Adjoining area of Gir forest The Girnar Mountain and Forest Spread over 180 sq km. Dry deciduous to Mixed forest type More than 150 plant species with low density of herbivores The Coastal Forest Covering the Gir PA on the South-west with an area of 98.44 sq km. The area configure by sandy plains Very poor vegetation and faunal diversity Lions in the area : Lions in the area As per the census of 1995 few lion pride were recorded in these area as floating population. Natural Dispersion of lion. The lions were found regularly in these area by 2001. The new established metapopulation of lions have increased the lion-human conflicts. Slide 6: Apart from lion these area also harbours good population of other carnivores like Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Hyena (Hyaena hyaena). The wild prey base for carnivores are only Bluebull (Boselaphus tragocamalus) and Sambar which is very low in the area. Thus both the greater cats mainly feeds upon the cattle of villagers and stray animals. The present work was organized to study some basic aspects of their ecology and to suggest the management strategy for this metapopulation. The main objectives : The main objectives Study of Pride structure and their behaviour through regular observation of a pride. To study feeding ecology using scat analysis. To assess man-animal conflicts. To suggest the management strategy. Pride Structure : Pride Structure Girnar mountains Two prides were regularly observed in the area Slide 9: Coastal Forest Six pride were recorded consisting total 22 individuals. A lioness at the sea shore : A lioness at the sea shore A lioness feeding on Sambar stag in Girnar forest. : A lioness feeding on Sambar stag in Girnar forest. Feeding Ecology : Feeding Ecology 150 Scats of lion were collected from Girnar mountains and 172 prey items were identified. Among wild prey they mainly consumes Sambar (16.28%) and Wildboar (15.70%). Slide 13: 135 Scats of lion were collected from the Coastal forests and 186 prey items were identified. Only available wild prey Bluebull was consumed 15%, whereas feral animals like domestic ass and pig were also been taken as food in the area. Slide 14: As compared to the Gir PA, the lions settled outside the PA depends more on the livestock due to low density of wild prey. Leopard on the kill of cattle calf : Leopard on the kill of cattle calf Lion-human conflicts : Lion-human conflicts Maldharis are the tribes living in the Girnar forest area by constructing their houses, locally called Ness. Total 68 villages are located on the fringes of Gir PA and its coastal border. The people living around PA are the main stakeholders of the forest. Livestock depredation by lion and leopard may be the one of the important reasons to rise conflicts. Slide 17: Livestock depredation by lion in the area around Gir PA Economic loss to the local villagers due to lion’s visit in their villages. Peoples attitude towards the presence of lion in the area : Peoples attitude towards the presence of lion in the area Number showing % of people interviewed Maldhari: The tribes of Gir : Maldhari: The tribes of Gir Management Recommendations : Management Recommendations Growth of the lion population in the coastal forest should be controlled to prevent the lion – human conflicts. A rescue management center should be established at suitable place. Improvement of coridoors for lion dispersion. The area also seems inhospitable for litter raising and supporting larger prides since wild prey base is scares and human pressure is high. Awareness of local people through some education programme. The area of Girnar mountains found more suitable for satellitic metapopulation, which should be declare as Sanctuary to prevent the disturbance, grazing and conflicts. Some rare pictures of Gir Ecosystem : Some rare pictures of Gir Ecosystem Mating pair of Asiatic lion Slide 22: Post mating behaviour of a pair A lioness with newly born cub : A lioness with newly born cub A thirsty pride : A thirsty pride The king watches everything! : The king watches everything! The competitor of Lion : The competitor of Lion Female leopard searching for Prey : Female leopard searching for Prey Spotted deer: Chief prey basefor both lion and Leopard in Gir : Spotted deer: Chief prey basefor both lion and Leopard in Gir Sambar: Only wild prey for lionin Girnar Mountain : Sambar: Only wild prey for lionin Girnar Mountain Jungle cat (Felis chausa) : Jungle cat (Felis chausa) Common langur (Presbytis entellus)One of the chief prey for leopard : Common langur (Presbytis entellus)One of the chief prey for leopard The riverain tract for dispersion : The riverain tract for dispersion Still the lions are safe in Gir : Still the lions are safe in Gir Slide 34: Save wildlife for Our life Dr. Nishith Dharaiya

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