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Published on May 11, 2013

Author: himadritripathi

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PowerPoint Presentation: PHYSICAL FEATURES OF India Physical features of India:: Physical features of India: The Peninsular Plateau Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Northern Plains The Himalayan mountains The Islands The Peninsular Plateau: The Peninsular Plateau The Peninsular Plateau of India is also named as the Plateau of Peninsular India. Its biggest part is known as the Deccan Plateau, comprising the most part of southern portion of the nation. The plateau ascends 100 meters in the north, ascending further to over 1,000 meters to the south Broadly classified into two parts: - Central Highlands - Deccan Plateau PowerPoint Presentation: The Deccan Plateau stretches over eight states in India and covers a broad variety of environments, encompassing the majority of the Central and South Indian regions. The Deccan Plateau is lying in the middle of three mountain ranges; the Eastern Ghats creates its eastern border and the Western Ghats its western border. Each of the two mountain ranges ascends from their particular adjacent seaward plains and almost joins at the southernmost point of India. PowerPoint Presentation: The Deccan Plateau is dissevered from the Gangetic Basin towards the north by the Vindhya and Satpura Mountain Ranges, which create its northern border. PowerPoint Presentation: Central Highlands - The northern segment of the peninsular cluster is known as the Central Highlands, despite the fact that they are not really so high. It was formed from hard metamorphic and igneous rocks. The cluster consists of two segments, demarcated by the west-running Narmada River. The Vindhyas and its eastern stretches enclose the one situated to the north on one region. To the north-west, it is edged by the Aravalli Mountain Ranges. The plateau extends more to the west, but is intersected by the arenaceous and stony arid region of Rajasthan. These are quite old examples of fold mountains. On the third side, this plateau fuses gradually in the Gangetic Plains of the north. This is named as the Malwa Plateau.: The plateau extends more to the west, but is intersected by the arenaceous and stony arid region of Rajasthan. These are quite old examples of fold mountains. On the third side, this plateau fuses gradually in the Gangetic Plains of the north. This is named as the Malwa Plateau. It is considerably broad in the west and becomes narrowed to the east. The eastern portion is named as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand, both them lying in South Uttar Pradesh. In Southern Bihar, it is known as Chota Nagpur Plateau. The southern tributaries of the Ganga River and Yamuna River drain the plateau. PowerPoint Presentation: Deccan Plateau - The Deccan Plateau is situated to the south of the Indo-Gangetic Basin. The Western Ghats Mountain Range is quite high and stops the humidity from the southwestern monsoon from arriving at the plateau. Therefore, the area gets negligible precipitation Majority of rivers in the Deccan Plateau run from the west to the east. PowerPoint Presentation: The Godavari River and its confluents, including the Indravati River, irrigate the majority of the northern part of the terrain, ascending in the Western Ghats and running to the east in the direction of Bay of Bengal. The Krishna River, Tungabhadra River, and the tributaries of the Krishna River, which include the Bhima River, which also flows from the west to east, irrigate the middle segment of the plateau. PowerPoint Presentation: Deccan Plateau is a triangle-shaped plateau that encompasses the majority of areas of peninsular India. Its northern fringes are the Chota Nagpur Plateau and Satpura Range. Mountains, known as the Eastern and Western Ghats, create the other borders of the triangle and are joined at its summit by the Anna Malai, Nilgiri, and Cardamom hills. The mean altitude of the plateau is 600 meters (2,000 feet) over sea surface. The hillsides incline from 900 m (3,000 feet) in the west to 450 m (1,500 feet) in the east. The Deccan Plateau is densely inhabited. It has fertile soil and grows various crops, mostly cotton. PowerPoint Presentation: Indian Desert PowerPoint Presentation: The Thar Desert also known as the Great Indian Desert , is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi), it is the world's 9th largest subtropical desert. PowerPoint Presentation: In India the Thar Desert (also known as the Great Indian Desert) extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State. In Pakistan, the desert covers the eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area. Tharparkar consists of two words: Thar means ‘desert’ while Parkar stands for ‘the other side’. Years back, it was known as Thar and Parkar but subsequently became just one word ‘Tharparkar’ for the two distinct parts of Sindh province. On the western side, Parkar is the irrigated area whereas Thar, the eastern part, is known as the largest desert of Pakistan. PowerPoint Presentation: Rainfall in the area is very low, from 0-250mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C. Desert soil - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard pan. Some of these soils contain a high percentage of soluble salts in the lower horizons, turning water in the wells poisonous. PowerPoint Presentation: Coastal Plains PowerPoint Presentation: Coastal plains are a geologic feature found around the world and on both the eastern and western coasts of India. Coastal plains are characterized by an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent to a water body often a sea or ocean. It is also of note that coastal plains are separated from the interior of the larger land mass by other unique features. Coastal plains have limited vegetation; however grasses and trees are not uncommon. The coastal plains of India are relatively expansive regions which contribute significantly to the geography of the region. PowerPoint Presentation: The eastern coastal plains are located on a wide stretch of land between the Eastern Ghats of India and the Bay of Bengal. This stretch of land stretches to 120 km in width at parts. The eastern coastal plains extend from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. The region of the eastern coastal plains is an expansive area and is divided into six regions. The six regions of the eastern coastal plains of India are the Mahanadi Delta, the Southern Andhra Pradesh Plain, the Krishna Godavari deltas, the Kanyakumari Coast, the Coromandel and the Sandy Coastal regions. Eastern Coastal Plains PowerPoint Presentation: Western Coastal Plains The western coastal plain of India in contrast to the eastern coastal plain is located on a narrow strip of land. The western coastal plains are located in the west of India between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. They extend from Gujarat in the north down 50 km to the south in Kerala and are characterized by numerous backwaters and rivers that flow into the region. These rivers that flow into the region lead to the forming of estuaries that are found in the western coastal plains of India. PowerPoint Presentation: The storm activity here is considerably less than on the eastern coastal plains. The maximum storm activity on the western coastal plains occurs in the month of March. The western coastal plains are smaller than their eastern counterpart and the region is divided into three parts. The western coastal plains are divided into the regions of Konkan, Kanara, and the Malabar Coast. PowerPoint Presentation: Northern Plains PowerPoint Presentation: The Northern Fertile Plain lies to the south of Himalayan Region. It is also called the Gangetic Plain. It is a vast plain and level land between the Himalayas in the North and Deccan Plateau in the South. From Punjab in the West to Assam in the East, this plain is about 2400 km. long and its width varies from 150 km. in the East to about 300 km. in the West. It includes the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, some parts of Assam and the Union Territory of Delhi. The slope of this plain in the West is South-west and in the East is South-east. : The slope of this plain in the West is South-west and in the East is South-east. The soil of this plain is built of the sediments brought down by the rivers from Himalayas. Such plain is called an alluvial plain and is very fertile. This plain is one of the largest and most fertile plains of the World. It is the most thickly populated plain. This is also the major crop growing area in India. Rivers drained in Northern Plains: Rivers drained in Northern Plains Three main rivers, the Sutlej, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries flow through this plain. So this plain can be divided into three parts namely : 1. The Sutlej Basin 2. The Ganga Basin and 3. The Brahmaputra Basin. An area through which a river and its tributaries flow is called its basin. Satluj Basin: Satluj Basin The Sutlej Basin lies in the Western part of the Northern plain. River Sutlej and its tributary Beas flows in this part. Beas joins Sutlej at Harike before the Sutlej enters Pakistan. Two important States of this basin are Punjab and Haryana. The Union Territory of Chandigarh also falls in this basin. This part does not get sufficient rain therefore wells, tube-wells and canals are also used for irrigation. Ganga Basin: Ganga Basin The Ganga Basin lies to the East of the Sutlej Basin. It is the largest part of this fertile Northern Plain. Therefore, this plain is also called Gangetic Plain. The States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and the Union Territory of Delhi lie in the Ganga Basin. The rivers Ganga, Yamuna and their tributaries flow through this part. The Ganga rises in the Himalayas in the glacier known as Gangotri. Bhagirathi, Mandakini, Alaknanda and some other streams join Ganga before it reaches Haridwar. It becomes quite a big river and at Haridwar the Ganga enters the plains. Haridwar is considered to be the most sacred place. Ganga Basin: Ganga Basin As the Ganga moves Eastwards, rivers Gomti, Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi join it from the North. These rivers are formed in the Himalayas and have water all the year round. At Allahabad the Yamuna joins the Ganga. This place is known as Sangam. It is a sacred place. Allahabad was known as Prayag in old days. Kumbh Me/a is held at Allahabad every twelve years. The Chambal, the Betwa, the Ken, the Sone and the Damodar join it from the South. These rivers rise in the hills of Central India. Brahmaputra Basin: Brahmaputra Basin The Brahmaputra Basin is the Eastern-most part of- the fertile Northern plain. The Brahmaputra rises in the Mansarovar lake in Tibet, in Tibet it is known as Tsang-Po. It turns to the South and enters India through the Eastern end of the Himalayas. Turning to the West it enters the plain through long valley in Assam and then the Brahmaputra turns to the South and enters Bangla Desh. Here it joins Padma and ends in the Sunderbans delta. Brahmaputra Basin is a narrow plain in the Assam State . This basin is surrounded by hills and mountains on three sides . Khasi, Garo, Jaintia and Naga Hills are on its Southern side. PowerPoint Presentation: Himalayan Mountains PowerPoint Presentation: STRETCHES 2500 km (NW to SE) WIDTH : 250-300 km WESTERN HIMALAYAS -(J&K, HP) CENTTRAL HIMALAYAS -(Uttaranchal,Nepal) EASTERN HIMALAYAS -(Nepal, Bhutan etc.,) 3 Longitudinal Belts: 3 Longitudinal Belts Great Himalayas (Himadri)5200m Middle Himalayas 3000m Shiwaliks 100m PowerPoint Presentation: Western coastal plains Eastern coastal plains ISLANDS: ISLANDS PowerPoint Presentation: => Lakshwadweep Islands group lying close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. This group of islands is composed of small coral islands. Earlier known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. =>Administrative headquarters of Lakshwadeep – Kavaratti island. This island groups has great diversity of flora & fauna. PowerPoint Presentation: Thank You

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