Peter Loveland Presentation

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Published on January 17, 2008

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Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (16 April 2002) - where we are at: monitoring:  Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (16 April 2002) - where we are at: monitoring EPA Meeting, Limerick 17 June 2004 Peter Loveland National Soil Resources Institute Cranfield University Bedford MK45 4DT, UK With contributions from all WGs, JRC (Ispra), INRA (France), Pat Bellamy & Ian Bradley (NSRI) Slide2:  The 8 threats to soil to be monitored (red = priority) Erosion Compaction Floods and landslides Salinization Sealing Contamination (local and diffuse) Decline in Biodiversity Organic matter The Committees (Nov 2002 – June 2004):  Advisory Forum Chair DG ENV Stakeholders meetings Chair DG ENV TWG 1 Monitoring TWG 2 Erosion, Sealing, Floods/L’slides TWG 3 Organic matter, Biodiversity TWG 4 Contamination : Diffuse & local The Committees (Nov 2002 – June 2004) ISWG = Interservice Working Group TWG = Technical Working Group 10/10/2002 Commission ISWG Chair DG ENV Technical co-ordination group and secretariat Chair DG ENV TWG5 Research Slide4:  WORKING GROUPS ORGANIC MATTER TASK GROUPS: 9 TASK GROUP LEADERS AND CO-LEADERS: 12 EROSION TASK GROUPS: 6 TASK GROUP LEADERS AND CO-LEADERS: 13 RESEARCH CHAIRS AND CO-CHAIRS: 3 TASK GROUPS: 9 TASK GROUP LEADERS AND CO-LEADERS: 14 CHAIRS AND CO-CHAIRS: 3 CHAIRS AND CO-CHAIRS: 3 CHAIRS AND CO-CHAIRS: 3 Slide5:  WG Contributors: 257 Members; 199 Participants Slide6:  Single, strategic package = Soil Protection Framework Includes: Soil Monitoring; Composts; Sewage Sludge and links to other Directives e.g. WFD Final reports of WGs – May 2004 EU Consultation May – Sept./Oct. 2004 “Opinion” – November 2004 ??? Draft Directive – first quarter/half 2005 ??? Implementation – 2007/2008??? Timetable: at Summer 2004 WG Monitoring: General Points (1):  WG Monitoring: General Points (1) Soil monitoring different from air and water Needs customized, pragmatic approach Address diversity and variability of soils Use 1:1 000 000 soil d’base of Europe Representativity analysis ‘One-size-fits-all’ won’t work What is monitoring for ? European Soil Database 1:1M:  European Soil Database 1:1M  Few profiles in the database WG Monitoring: General Points (2):  WG Monitoring: General Points (2) Common threats need systematic monitoring Local threats need local approach Stratify soils by susceptibility to threat Future monitoring based on existing systems Cost-benefits – how to be done ?? Set up Co-ordination Group/ EU Conservation Service ?? ICP Forest Soil Monitoring Network:  ICP Forest Soil Monitoring Network Slide11:  Other countries No soil monitoring 1 site/100 km2 2-3 sites/100 km2 >3 sites/100 km2 National Soil Monitoring Networks ?  No international harmonization WG Monitoring: What to do (1):  WG Monitoring: What to do (1) Basic inventory/ baseline Parameters/indicators relevant to threat or site Minimum set of common parameters at agreed sites Performance criteria for each threat Define relevant regions for each threat at EU-level Representativity analysis for the different threats Subsidiarity WG Monitoring: What to do (2):  WG Monitoring: What to do (2) Define parameters, indicators, time scales, frequency Soil strategy: medium/long term monitoring needs Link existing databases, mapping etc. DPSIR model: choice and selection of parameters, indicators Harmonize QC/QA procedures Regular reporting procedure (5 years) Slide14:  Comparison Statistics for all Europe Statistics for grid points Soil Land cover Grid Representativity ?? Slide15:  Comparison of the frequencies of distributions Soil x Land-Cover Europe Grid-points Bd x 31 4.9% 5.2% Lo x 21 3.8% 4.0% Be x 21 3.0% 3.2% Bk x 23 2.6% 2.8% … … Soil x Corine Land Cover Relative frequencies All Europe Grid-points Slide16:  Level I: Grid-based (???)  Basic monitoring on a regular grid (no agreement)  Decline in organic matter, loss of soil biodiversity, diffuse soil contamination:  National responsibility . Use existing systems . Flexibility QA/QC procedures: inter-laboratory calibration (What about stratified random sampling ??) Slide17:  16 x 16 km cell size 21,760 cells (ICP) LUCAS 18 x 18 km European Soil Monitoring Network Level I simulation (extension of ICP forest) Slide18:  Level 2: Reference sites  Selection of sites by National and European institutions ( 10%)  Soil physical degradation, soil salinization, local soil contamination (“hot spots”)  Sampling at National level (delineation of risk)  Analysis and archiving at European level: one laboratory and common archiving  Benchmarking to Level 1 (QA/QC) Slide19:  Level 3: Specialized sites  Small areas representative of climatic and landscape conditions (e.g.: catchments) Specific contamination (e.g. military; nuclear etc.)  Dedicated measurements (e.g. spatial process) Extrapolation by models (develop, validate) Research topics, new methods Link to global systems (+ air & water monitoring) TG Parameters and Indicators (1) :  TG Parameters and Indicators (1) Which parameters for EU-wide monitoring Differentiate ‘kind’ (what) and ‘condition’ (status) Basic measurements at each site Local contamination: case-by-case basis Use LUCAS and other EU programmes ? Monitoring Drivers, Pressures and Impacts TG Parameters and Indicators (2):  TG Parameters and Indicators (2) General parameters (use common systems !!!!!) Site and profile description; classification; parent material Sampling design: long-term, robust Agreed sampling depths: layer vs horizon Bulk density Pore size distribution, stone content and stone size Particle size distribution pH and cation exchange capacity Water holding capacity; water retention curve Hydraulic conductivity (lateral and vertical) Depth to groundwater Mineralogy TG Parameters and Indicators (3):  TG Parameters and Indicators (3) Threat: Soil organic matter and biodiversity Total organic carbon Total (organic) nitrogen C:N ratio Bulk density (biomass; respiration rate; keystone species; microbial diversity; OC pools …Level 2 ??) TG Parameters and Indicators (4):  TG Parameters and Indicators (4) Threat: Soil erosion First stage: determine areas of potential and actual risk e.g. by remote sensing/modelling No soil parameters monitored at first stage Second stage: quantify erosion at reference sites (Level 2 or 3 ?? Catchments ??) TG Parameters and Indicators (5):  TG Parameters and Indicators (5) Threat: Diffuse Soil Contamination 'Total' element concentrations: Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Mercury Nickel Lead Phosphorus and nitrogen Zinc TG Parameters and Indicators (6):  TG Parameters and Indicators (6) Threat: Local Soil Contamination Depends on local circumstances e.g. POPs, PAHs, DBFs, Dioxins, pesticides, radio-nuclides etc. Regional Indicators : Progress in contaminated site management Number of contaminated sites at each management stage Registers of contaminated sites Unused industrial land Application of sewage sludge TG Parameters and Indicators (7):  TG Parameters and Indicators (7) Threat: Soil Sealing Obtain from appropriate statistics Need common definitions and harmonization between Member States Amount of soil sealed Kind of soil sealed Rate (intensity) of soil sealing Most successful approach: remote sensing Resolution ??? (<5 m ???) Slide27:  Indicator TG Parameters and Indicators (8):  TG Parameters and Indicators (8) Threat: Soil compaction: Bulk density (wetness – remote sensing ??) Threat: Floods and Landslides Trans-national approach Define ‘flood’ and ‘landslide’ (extent, magnitude, duration, economic aspects) Initial approach: indicator-based TG Parameters and Indicators (9):  TG Parameters and Indicators (9) Threat: Salinization and sodification Local extent Addressed by individual Member States Define reporting mechanism Measure pH, EC, SAR, cations, soluble salts …. TG Harmonization :  Harmonize existing data (expert assessment; trans- national comparison; Co-ordination Group) Protocols: selection, location, setting up and maintenance of monitoring sites, site and soil descriptions, sampling strategies, laboratory procedures, data handling and storage, and QC/QA Support development of further norms (standards) Calculate costs in an open and transparent manner Adequate time frame before a new method becomes obligatory TG Harmonization Slide31:  Single, strategic package = Soil Protection Framework Includes: Soil Monitoring; Composts; Sewage Sludge and links to other Directives e.g. WFD Final reports of WGs – May 2004 EU Consultation May – Sept./Oct. 2004 “Opinion” – November 2004 ??? Draft Directive – first quarter/half 2005 ??? Implementation – 2007/2008??? Timetable: at Summer 2004

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